Julius Ceaser was born in 100 B.C.. He was named after his father and his full name was Gaius Julius Caesar. He was a strong political and military leader who Maijorly changed the course of history in the Roman world. Caesar was a major part of the Roman Empire because of his amazing strength and his very smart military strategies.
When he was young Caesar lived through one of the worst decades in the history of the city of Rome. The city was assaulted twice and captured by Roman armies. The city was first attacked in 87 B.C. by the leaders of the populares. The city was then attacked in 82 B.C. by the optimates. As a result of each attack politicians were killed and all their property was taken.
After these attacks Ceaser headed to the island of Rhodes to study public speaking, under the guidance of the famous Greek rhetorican, Apllonius Molon.
In the winter of 74 B.C. he was captured by pirates. He was held for a large amount of ransom. While awaiting for the ransom money Ceaser was able to escape from them and capture many of the pirates in the process. He then did what he promised them and crucified all of them. After doing this he then returned to Rome to pursue a normal political career. In 65 B.C. he was appointed an aedile. An aedile is the person who is in charge of all the programs in the city which included games, events, and shows. Because of his position as an aedile he gained claim to the leadership of the populares. He then moved to Spain and served as their governor in 69-68 B.C. He was very successful and returned to his home with considerable military glory and enough money for him to be able to pay off his debts.
In 59 B.C. Ceaser was elected for counsul. He made a political alliance which included himself, Pompey, and Crassus. This political alliance was called the first triumvirate. Ceaser's main purpose in doing this was to gain a large military command. Pompey had a great influence though his tremendous abilities and military achievements. Crassus was very powerful because of his wealth. He sought a revision of the contract for collecting taxes in the province of Asia. Pompey wanted a part of the eastern settlement to give the land to his discharged troops. A bill authorizing the purchase of land for his soldiers was passed in 59 B.C. This law did not go over very well with many people and as a result Ceaser and his group were attacked. Their opponents claimed that the legislation was invalid and just not right.
Caesar had secured for five years the governship of three provinces. They were Cisalpine Gaul, Transalpine Gaul, and Illyricum. He left Rome and remained in Gaul until his invasion of Italy. He became determined to conquer and make a province of all of Gaul. After his defeat of the Belgic tribes in the north and the maritime tribes in the Atlantic seaboard he believed he accomplished what he set out to do. Caesar had avoided recall back to Rome at the end of the five years of his command and came up with a new agreement with Pompey and Crassus. The optimates in control of the senate were now more aware of Caesar's personal power, prestige, and wealth, kept Pompey in Italy giving him control of the Spanish provinces. Crassus was killed by the Parthians at Carrhae in Mesopotamia in 54 B.C. In planning Caesar's return to civil life in Rome he could assume that as soon as he lost the immunity from prosecution which his military command conferred, his political enemies would try to get him prosecuted in court for bribery of the use of force in politics. In Rome, Curio set up the proposal that said Caesar would give up his military command and stand in person at the consular election and Pompey would also have to give up his military command.
In January of 49 B.C., Antony and one of his fellow tribunes were warned that their lives would be in danger if the proclamation of military law was passed. Caesar was told to leave his troops behind and cross the Rubicon into Rome alone. He knew that he would stand no chance without his troops and would most likely be killed without them. He then decided to march into Rome with his troops and start a civil war. He defeated the troops of his once friend and partner Pompey and then became the dictator of Rome.
From the time that Caesar had first faced battle in Gaul and discovered his own military genius, he became obsessed with imperial and military problems. He gave them priority over the task of revising the Roman constitution. His goal was to find a resolution to the problems of corruption and weakness in the administration.
The first dictatorship of Caesar was for him to be able to hold elections in the absence of consuls of the year who were with Pompey. After many failures in the form of the government he was appointed perpetual dictator. When Caesar was out of Italy the real power was in his representative "master of the horse" Mark Anthony. Much hatred towards Caesar was felt by many prominent senators like Cicero, because of the great amount of power and authority Caesar had. Caesar's military dominance made it impossible for someone to go against him which was against earlier Roman ways. Caesar was considered a dictator for life. The Roman constitution said the office was only to be held for six months during an emergency. He also obtained many honors. He wore a robe and a crown, was a triumphant general, and was in command of all the armies. Caesar used this dictatorship as a way to increase his power. Having all these powers in a way made him the king of Rome. His only major supporter was Mark Anthony and he tried to help convince others to let Caesar have all the power.
A group of conspirators had been formed against Caesar because they felt he had too much power. They felt if he became the king of Rome that he would become corrupt and use his powers as king to create a bad society. Marcus Brutus organized a sixty member conspiracy to kill Caesar. Two days before he was to leave for a great eastern expedition, on the Ides Of March, he was stabbed to death at a meeting of the senate in Pompey's new theater. He fell dead at the foot of Pompey's statue.
Caesar led a wonderful and fulfilling life. He was a strong military leader who showed strength and courage to take over Rome and make it strong politically and militarily. He was the first leader to get the permanent title of Imperator. He made many reforms including redistribution of state lands in Italy, founder of new colonies overseas, gave land to thousands of ex-soilders who had no land of their own. He also began many public work projects that helped build roads, buildings, and drain marshes; giving thousands of out of work Romans jobs. He doubled the size of the senate and made each senator less powerful and cut back the activities of the publicans. He gave Roman citizenship to Gauls, Greeks, and Spaniards. He also adopted a new calendar based on the Egyptian calendar. Caesar was a major part of the Roman Empire because of his strength and strong war strategies. His dictatorship was a major part in Rome's transition from a republic to an empire. Caesar basically built a country out of nothing. He had the strength and the power to reconstruct the army, navy, laws, trade, and the whole system of government.