World History Notes On Ancient Sumerian City States,Religion,Law,Math& Writing::Downfall of Sumerians::Ancient Middle Eastern Civilizations(other than Sumer)
*Ancient Middle East* (3570 b.c-331 b.c)
-Sumerians are the first known civilization in the Middle East.
-Sumerians settled in Mesopotamia, which is present-day Iraq
-Mesopotamia means "lands between two rivers" (Tigris & Euphrates)
-Mesopotamia lies in the East End of "Fertile Crescent"(rich fertile land extending from the Persian Gulf to the Mediterranean Sea.
-It was a hot and dry climate between the rivers, but it had fertile land.
- The lands of the middle east were more easily conquered than Egypt; Egypt had natural barriers (deserts), unlike the middle east, which did not.
-Egypt wasn't under constant attack, so it left plenty of time for advancements in technology.
-Mesopotamia was split into 12 city-states
-Each city-state had their own government and supervised their own canals and dikes.
-City-states constructed city walls, and storage areas for food in case of attack.
-As city-states grew, they began to fight and have wars with each other.
-War became more important and war-time leaders began to control and people began to care less about the priests.
-Rich soil was abundant; stone and timber were not abundant
-All City-states had a ziggurat: Large, brick temple; home for Gods; largest building in town; center of all social life.
*Transportation & Trade
-Sometime between 3200 b.c. & 1600 b.c, the sail and wheel were revolutionized.
-Sumerians were the first known to use the wheel (invented or borrowed?)
-Sumerians used bronze(silver and copper alloy) tools and weapons
-Period in Sumer around 2800 b.c. was the Bronze Age.
-Any time earlier than the Bronze Age was the Stone Age.
-Sumerians learned to have written record using tools to carve on wet clay (Cuneiform)
-Cuneiform(wedge-shaped writing) started as picto-graphs
-Later, cuneiform was simplified into using symbols as sounds.
-Writing spread across the fertile crescent through...
Ancient Egypt essays:
... Like ancient Egypt, Sumer had a large amount of excess food that allowed traders and artisans to thrive. This trading process began around 3000 B.C., when Sumerians began trading with the rest of the Middle East. Sumerians used ...
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... the Mediterranean Sea. It is the main reason why the Ancient Egyptians were such a successful people, the moisture from the river was the only thing keeping Egypt from change to a ...
... of Ancient Egypt, British Museum Press, London Harris, N, 1997, The History of Ancient Egypt, Chancellor Press, London Johnson, P, 1999, The Civilization of Ancient Egypt ... transferred his capital from Thebes to a new site down the river, now called Amarna, on a desolate stretch of the Nile about ...
EGYPT--Description of Egyption culture, mummification, government and religion of ancient egypt--also a comparison with modern Egypt
... ancient times. Without the Nile all of Egypt would be a very hot and dry dessert. The Nile stretches for 4,145 miles. It is the longest river ... the making of a mummy. It usually took about seventy days before mummification was completed. The first step was to remove ...
Egypt: Religion Culture and the Afterlife "Documents In world History Volume" by Peter N. Stearns; Stephen S. Gosch; Erwin P. Grieshaber
... there was not a very big affect on the Egyptian culture. The arts and religion where not effected by the Mesopotamia interaction. Through isolation the Egyptian people where able to be over confident, almost cocky about their superiority of other people ...
... the ancient Near East was Anu, the god of the sky and of the city of Uruk. The Ziggurat at Ur is one of the greatest in Mesopotamia and ... formed the city's monumental nucleus. A well-preserved temple and early example of Sumerian architecture is the White Temple at Uruk. Its 5000-year-old design is ...
... that he built that add to the mystic and phenomenal civilization of the Ancient Egyptians. These aspects of Thutmose IIIs reign will be ... (a visual object that shows the conquered countries). In addition to these two major constructions, numerous other temples and shrines were erected in Thutmose ...