Reason is defined as the capacity for logical, rational, analytical thought, and intelligence. Using reason to come to a conclusion is used by all of us every day. But using reason to create a better society is a bit trickier than our decision to roll out of bed every morning.
Adam Smith was a philosopher but is also accredited to creating the market economy, supply and demand. Smith's book "The Wealth of Nations" not only explained how his new way of economics would work but also left some insight on how we can better our societies through numerous ways.
Through the division of labor he used a perfect example. Instead of one person making a whole nail; why not use a few people to create the same nail? These few workers would be subdivided or using his words divided to different tasks. One would blow the bellows, one would forge the actual nail, and the other would create the head of the nail with a specific tool.
These few people would be able to create over 2,000 nails a day compared to the one smith who would only be able to forge 250 nails.
As products are created at a higher volume because of this assembly line technique, supply of nails would go up which would inevitably drop the price of nails. Nails may not be a good example to use but as the prices lower more people are more inclined to purchase them. This is turn will free up more of their money to purchase more products of a different nature. This will also create more of a profit for the business owner.
Since the business owner has a higher profit he can then invest in new machinery to produce the products cheaper but also hire more...