Bentley Traditions and Encounters Chapter 27 Ming Qing China Outline

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Tradition and Change in East Asia•Clocks became popular among elite of China when they were 1st introduced in 1601•Matteo Ricci a missionary caught emperor Wanli’s eye w/ clock & then persuaded him to convert to Christianity•Emperor however didn’t convert & missions attracted small numbers of converts•Europeans were active on coastlines in E. Asia since they controlled own affairs until 19th century•Japan also underwent change during 17-18th century•Tokugawa shoguns unified Japanese islands for 1st timeThe Quest for Political Stability•During 13-14th centuries China was ruled by Mongol’s Yuan dynasty (1279-1368)•Mongol overlord ignored Chinese political & cultural traditions & displaced bureaucrats•When Ming dynasty took over they wanted to restore cultural tradition in China•The following Qing dynasty were nomadic but also worked zealously to promote Chinese ways•Both promoted Chinese ways & #1 concern was maintaining the large agrarian societyThe Ming Dynasty•When Yuan dynasty collapsed Ming restored order (1368-1644)•Hongwu was founder of the Ming “brilliant” dynasty & drove out Mongols; built tightly centralized state•Made use of mandarins who traveled throughout land & oversaw implementation of gov.

•Also used many eunuchs (who had packages removed)•Emperor Yongle (1403-1424) launched a series of naval expeditions•Moved capital from Nanjing to Beijing to keep a closer eye on the Mongols & Korea•Ming built new fortifications like Great Wall (early walls fell to ruin from B.C.E.)•Emperors sought to restore Chinese traditions•Individuals abandoned Mongol names & dress•Gov. supported & financed study of culture & Confucianism for academies•Recovered civil service exam•Started to decline from inept (incompetent) emperors•Ming navy & coastal defenses were ineffective & pirates caused many problems•later emperors lived lavishly in forbidden city & relied on eunuchs to conduct business•Emperor Wanli (1572-1620) refused to meet w/ gov. officials•Eunuchs only used power to increase own wealth•Many generals deserted Ming b/c of corruption & inefficiency•Horrible famine struck & ppl ate tree bark...