British History In A Nutshell

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British History In A Nutshell Britain: situated near the continent; coast easily accessible; fertile coun-try; temperate climate; mineral resources -> several invasions about 800 BC Celts (related to the Celts in Gaul) 55 "“ 54 BC Julius Caesar landed twice; wanted to frighten them 43 AD Roman conquest began -> peace and order until about 410; roads, walls (e.g. Hadrian's Wall 123), forts, cities (place names ending in "chester"), baths, theatres, ...

410 "“ 430 withdrawal of legions; Angles, Saxons, Jutes -> Celts were driven into mountainous areas.

7 kingdoms ("heptarchy") -> Sussex, Essex, Wessex, Kent, East Anglia, Mercia, North Umbria; most important: Wessex (capital Winchester) -> 871 "“ 899 Alfred the Great; supported learning, founded schools, great navy; Christianity; in 878 he defeated the Danes, they retreated to the "Danelaw" (NE parts of England).

England grew rich and strong under Alfred's descendants, who unified the kingdoms.

Anglo-Saxon names: -ham (village), -hurst (wood), -ey (island); Danish settlement: -by (town), -thorpe (settlement), -garth (enclosure) about 1000 the Danes renewed their attacks -> 1016 Danish king Canute united Denmark and England; the Anglo-Danish empire fell apart again, in 1066 Harold II, the last Anglo-Saxon king, was elected by the council of wise men, but William, Duke of Normandy, claimed the throne.

While the Saxons fought the Danes in the north, William landed near Hastings (new technique of fighting: archers; armoured soldiers on horseback); Harold's army marched 250 miles south -> defeated in the Battle of Hastings. Normans became masters of England (French language and customs) 1066 "“ 1087 William I, the Conqueror "“ gave land to those who had helped him (vassals, serfs) "“ strengthened royal power by having castles built all over the country to crush rebellion 1086 Domesday Book: first national census (information about the size and ownership of...