Notes For AP European History

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-EuroHistory Notes

-Hapsburg family lands were Austria, Hungary, and Bohemia

-Hohenzollerns ruled Prussia, which became a strong united country under Frederick the Great

-Kings became powerful during the late middle ages by gaining power over taxes, military and law

-Louis XIV of France was among the first absolute kings in Europe

-Charles I of England was beheaded by Parliament when he tried to act like an absolute King

-Parliament made ministerial responsibility meaning the PM was responsible to them, not to the King

-John Locke said government's job was to protect the 3 Natural rights of Citizens-Life, Liberty, and Property

-Rousseau said government should follow the general will of its people

-Voltaire was for freedom of speech

-Liberalism meant there should be minimal government and freedom of the individual, freedoms of Press, Speech, and Religion & Assembly

-Constitutional Government is a gvmt that has basic rules upon which the country is based

-Adam Smith, economist, whose idea of Laisez-faire, free trade, said gvmt.

shouldn't interfere in the economy by making tariffs. Labor is the source of wealth, not gold.

-Free Trade was against the guilds and economic idea of Mercantilism

-National self-determination liberal idea that each people should have a gvmt. that reflects them

French Revolution

-Louis XIV, bankrupted France with his foreign wars and his new palace, Versailles

-Louis XVI financial minister was Turgot. A man of the enlightenment, Turgot tried to tax land [mostly owned by nobles] free tariffs and get rid of the corvee

-Nobles and clergy were exempt from taxation and where against Turgot's plan to tax them. So they made Louis XVI get rid of Turgot and hire Necker, a Swiss banker

-Necker financially supported the American Rev. which made a bigger debt for France

-King needed money so the nobles and clergy forced...