Lab Report: Physical and Chemical Changes

Essay by thebeckitaHigh School, 11th grade January 2006

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Purpose:

To investigate the difference between physical and chemical changes in matter.

Materials:

Safety glasses

13 small test tubes

Test tube rack

Test tube holder

2 100-mL beakers

Funnel

Watch glass

Stirring rod

Evaporating dish

Magnet

Magnifying glass

Crucible tongs

Spatula

Balance

Meeker burner

Ring stand

Iron ring

Wire gauze

Forceps

Sulfur

Iron filings

Sodium Bicarbonate

Sodium Chloride

Sugar

Sand

Magnesium ribbon

Hydrochloric Acid

Distilled water

Filter paper

9 disposable dishes

Procedure:

1. Label 7 of the dishes with the names of the following products: Sulfur, Iron, Sodium Bicarbonate, Sodium Chloride, Sugar, Sand, and Magnesium. Place small samples of each in the appropriate dishes.

2. Examine each sample with a magnifying glass and magnet and record your observations in the data table.

3. Put small samples of each substance in a test tube along with 3 mL of water to determine their solubility.

4. Mix some of the Iron and Sulfur on a clean disposable dish and examine the mixture with a magnifying glass and magnet.

Record your observations in the data table. Save and label this mixture.

5. Mix some of the sand and Sodium Chloride on a clean disposable dish and examine the mixture with a magnifying glass and magnet. Then, place this mixture in a clean 100-mL beaker. Add 30 mL of tap water and stir. Prepare a filtration setup, filter, and record your observations.

6. Pour 10 mL of the filtrate into an evaporating dish, prepare a heating setup, and gently heat until all of the liquid is gone. Examine the residue in the evaporating dish and on the filter paper.

7. Using the crucible tongs, hold a dry piece of Magnesium ribbon in the flame. Quickly place the burning ribbon on the watch glass. Compare the appearance of the ribbon before and after burning.

8. Place the burnt remnants of the Magnesium into a clean test tube, and add 10 drops of Hydrochloric acid to it. Also, add 10 drops to the original Magnesium. Feel the bottom of each tube.

9. Put some sugar in a clean test tube and heat it. Watch for changes and periodically check for odors. Record your results.

10. Scrape some of the sugar residue into a clean test tube and add 3 mL of water to test its solubility. Record your results. Then add 5 drops of Hydrochloric acid to it and feel the bottom of the tube.

11. Add 5 drops of Hydrochloric acid to the test tube with the Sodium Bicarbonate dissolved in water. Feel the bottom of the tube and note the collection on the sides.

12. Place the sample of the Iron and Sulfur mixture into a clean test tube. Heat it vigorously for several minutes. Submerge the hot test tube into water. Test it for magnetism.

Data and Observations:

Data Table 1: Physical Properties of Matter

Substance Physical State Color Odor Solubility Magnetism

Sulfur solid yellow none partially no

Iron solid brown rusty metal yes yes

Sodium Bicarbonate solid white none yes no

Sodium Chloride solid white none yes no

Sugar solid white sweet yes no

Sand solid tan none partially no

Magnetism solid silver metallic no no

Data Table 2: Observation of Physical and Chemical Changes

System Observations

Iron and Sulfur mixture with magnet Only the iron is magnetic; Sulfur is less clumpy

Sodium Chloride and sand mixture

With water -

Filtered -

Evaporated -

No reaction

Sand stays in the filter

Water evaporates; Salt stays in dish

Magnesium burned in air Burns bright white

Magnesium reacted with acid Temperature rises a little; Fizzes

Combusted product reacted with acid Temperature rises a lot; Fizzes

Sugar heated Smelled like burnt marshmallows; Smoked; Turned black

Sodium Bicarbonate Temperature rises a little; Droplets form on inside of tube

Calculations:

There were no calculations made in this lab.

Conclusion:

Physical changes do not change the properties of the individual substances. Chemical changes will affect the properties.