Question 1: - Why automotive manufactures are seeking to employ new manufacturing techniques in component manufacture - you should give additional examples. 
Manufacturing Process Comparison Table:
Manufacturing Process Raw Material Utilisation (%) Energy Requirement per kg of finished part (MJ)
Casting 90 30-38
PM - Sintering 97 29
Cold or Warm Extrusion 85 41
Hot Drop Forging 75-80 46-49
Machining Processes 40-50 66-82
- To produce the highest quality part at the lowest possible cost, to produce a 'WIN WIN' situation where the customer gets a low cost high quality part that is economical and profitable to produce.
- To save money - PM can be a cheaper process than alternative methods. A part of a commercial irrigation sprinkler made from brass alloy was die-cast but is now produced using PM at a 60% cost saving.
- Generally cutting costs through innovation will save money.
- Generally companies are looking to produce a manufacturing process that is more automated / efficient / time saving / etc.
- To make an increase in Raw material utilisation (see table above).
- A decrease in the energy required producing the part (see table above).
- To make production more energy efficient.
- To produce a higher quality part.
- To produce o process that will require less labour.
- Require minimal time of unskilled labour - unskilled because of cheaper wages and ease of recruitment.
- Have a reduction in lead times this so supply to the customer is more guaranteed.
- Create ways of producing cheaper tools / equipment.
Typical example of Improved Process Technique:
PM Metal Injection Moulding (MIM) process
- Uses very fine powders mixed with polymers or wax-based materials (extra costs due to smaller grain sizes and the addition of the polymer to help powder flow).