Among the new technological advances is the idea of Nano-technology. This technology works with materials so small only very high-powered microscopes that can view up to a nanometer (1 x 10-9m.) can display them. With Nano-technology came the idea of Nanocrystalline materials. Nanocrystalline materials are chemically altered substances that undergo an electrosynthesis transformation, which makes the materials mechanical properties better and more useful in a practical inexpensive way.
To create a Nanocrystalline material, a plasma arc system must be constructed. The plasma arc system will vaporize the high purity precursor material, the material used to get Nanocrystalline material, in a chamber by using the plasma arc generated from the system. The plasma arc is a transfer of arc energy through tungsten, a nonconsumable electrode surrounded by argon gas that shields the tungsten from an "oxidizing environment" (Jenkins 4). When the argon gas is ionized to a large concentration the gas will become working plasma gas and create an arc.
The arc will form a plasma flame that can be several inches long to create a high temperature furnace in the chamber to vaporize the material (Jenkins 4). The temperature in the chamber will then be adjusted by adjusting the length of the plasma flame. The temperature is important because the higher the temperature maintained, the more complete the reaction will occur. Once the material is vaporized, elements such as "oxygen, nitrogen, helium, air, or combinations of these gases" are added to the vaporized substance (Jenkins 5). Nanocrystals now begin to form. The system is then cooled by a blower; blowing recirculated gas or room air to prevent further agglomeration of the nanocrystals (Jenkins 5). Once the vaporized material is cooled slowly to room temperature, a Nanocrystalline structured material is created (Jenkins 5).
What makes Nanocrystalline materials so great is...