Examine the various strategies used by the nationalist organizations to achieve their aims and the corresponding colonial responses in the period 1900-1940. (essay outline)

Essay by ekaUniversity, Bachelor's September 2004

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Intro: As most nationalist organizations aim to drive out their colonial masters and achieve independence, various strategies have been used to fulfill their aims.

1) With its ability to provide a common link between different people, religion has been used as a platform for several organizations to advance their political agenda

a) Indonesia - Sarekat Dagang Islam (anti-Chinese) (1911)

Its focus was to develop and improve the economy and they were fully aware of the Chinese's hold on the economy

Used Islam to foster cohesion among the different communities to compete successfully against the Chinese

Not only protected the Muslims from Chinese merchants but also incited anti-Chinese riots

Colonial Response: The Dutch eventually suppressed the party and forbade the central body to function. With only the branches able to carry on, thus hindered the party's unifying efforts.

b) Burma - Buddhist Sangha Association (1918)

Buddhist monks used their influence to rouse the people against the diarchy rule and to demand "Home Rule"

Home Rule - (i) did not accept foreign rule, (ii) allowed for more political advancement due to liberalization of constitution, (iii) incited people to use violence to secure their national goals.

Colonial response: British adopted stringent political measures to curb local political aspirations and to maintain prevailing economic superiority of non-Burmese.

2) Education not only helped in broadening the people's horizons and thinking but with the educated supporting the organizations, it gives them more credibility.

a) Indonesia

Opening of Kartini schools (1902) and Boedi Utomo organizations (1908) saw a revival in the traditional consciousness of the people

Sparked off an interest for the people to express themselves through corporate bodies

Was recognized for their desirable blend of westernization and Javanese tradition

Colonial response: as the schools and organizations were limited in scope; it was limited only to the...