Explain the causes for the failure of White Revolution? ( in Pahlavi dynasty)

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Explain the causes for the failure of White Revolution?


May 1999


The circumstances of the events between the years 1960 and 1963 are considered as the background and basis for the proclamation of the White Revolution. The general atmosphere of political uncertainty and poor economic prospects reduced domestic saving and investment. Thus the inflationary pressure continued and the cost of living rose day by day. In addition the Iranian economic situation was conditioned by the political conflict.

In 1960, one of the most important events was the election of the twentieth Majles. The two parties that the Shah created, the Melliun (Nationalist Party) and the Mardom (People Party) were rivals. Under U.S. pressure, the Shah allowed independent Second National Front candidates to enter the race. Despite the promise of the Shah that the elections would take place in greater freedom than in the past, it seemed that he hand picked all the candidates of both parties and as the elections proceeded, it became clear that it was his authority that was influencing the result.

Thus, the Shah cancelled the elections and on 10 January, 1961,held new ones.

Another important event in this period was the appointment of Sharif Emami to the post of Prime Minister on 3o August 1960. Hence, as Ghods explained, because "Emami was affiliated with no political party and had close ties to the religious establishment, but, because he did not implement any reforms, he failed to achieve either politic popularity or U.S. support." Thus he resigned from his post on 4th May 1961.

On the 6th May 1961, Dr 'Ali Amini replaced Emami and for the first time promised a "White Revolution". Amini was one of the American favourites in Iran. Abrahamian explained that "the United States favoured Amini...