Human Genome Project

Essay by Miriam1998High School, 12th gradeB, July 2014

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The Human Genome Project- Miriam Bartlett Word count- 1853 .

The Human Genome Project began in October, 1990 and was a long-term multi-billion dollar project which helped international scientists determine the sequence of chemical base pairs which make up human DNA. The human genome consists of 50,000 to 100,000 genes located on 23 pairs of chromosomes. One chromosome in each pair is inherited from the mother, and the other from the fath er. Each chromosome contains a long molecule of DNA, the molecule of which genes are made the human genome project worked on identifying and mapping these genes from both a physical and functional point of view. The Project was coordinated by the National Institutes of Health and the U.S. Department of Energy Additional contributors included universities across the United States and international partners in the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Japan and China. This project had the outcome to further our un derstanding of human evolution and variation and most importantly human diseases.

The very first origins for the project were in 1911 when Alfred Sturtevant created the first gene map of the Drosophila (fly). The first step in molecular biological resea rch, was the discovery of the double helical structure of the DNA molecule in 1953 by Francis Crick and James Watson who shared the Nobel Prize in 1962 in the category of "physiology or medicine." In the mid-1970s, Frederick Sanger developed techniques to sequence DNA, he received a Nobel Prize in 1980 for chemistry. With the replacement of human workers by technology in 1980s DNA sequencing the idea to be able to map the entire human genome was proposed by academic biologists. The United States Department of Energy, became involved in 1986 studying the gene mutating effects of radiation and they established an early genome...