Notes on Enlightenment Thinkers

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The Enlightenment Thinkers and Their Major IdeasPhilosopherDatesImportant WorksMajor ideasThomas Hobbes1588-1679Leviathan“People need a powerful ruler like a sea monster”-All humans are naturally selfish and wicked.

-Without government and order, people will fight.

-You need a strong ruler, and in return you gain law and order-In favor of Absolute Monarchy because they impose order and demand obedienceJohn Locke1632-1704Essay Concerning Human UnderstandingTwo treatises on Government-People can learn from experience and improve themselves.

-People have the natural ability to govern their own affairs and look after the welfare of their society.

-Criticized Absolute Monarchy and wanted self government-All people are born free and equal and have 3 natural rights*life*liberty*property~The government has to protect these rights. If they don’t, the people can overthrow the government-Government power comes from the consent of the people.

-Basis of modern democracy-Founder of empiricism - What is the extent of human understanding? - We can know God; we can know morality-Government is a covenant between the rulers and the governedMontesquieu1689-1755Spirit of Laws-Studied political liberty and believed in the separation of powers-Separation of power keeps any one individual from gaining total control over the government-3 branches of government with a checks and balance system is the basis for U.S.

Constitution to prevent the abuse of powerVoltaire1694-1778CandideOver 20,000 papers and essays-Fought for tolerance, reason, freedom of religious beliefs and freedom of speech.

-The most inhumane crimes have been perpetuated in the name of religion. Secular values should take precedence over religious ones.

-Through reason and intellect mankind can create a just and moral society.

-Did not trust the average person – not an advocate for democracy.

-Supported monarchy and aristocracy, though he criticized bothJean-Jacques Rousseau1712-1778Discourse on the moral effects of the Arts and SciencesThe Social Contract“An agreement among free individuals to create a society and government”-Individual freedoms-Civilization corrupts people’s natural goodness-The only good government was one freely formed by the people, a direct democracy-Promotes equal rights.

-Promotes liberty. Government should protect the rights and equality of everyone, not just the property of the aristocracy.

-Everyone enters into a social contract in order to be part of society. According to that contract, they agree to behave a certain way.

Copernicus1473-1543On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres-Heliocentric Theory -The sun is at the center of the universe, not the earth and all the stards, Earth and other planets revolve around the sunGalileo1564-1642The Starry Messenger*Described his observations*Dialogues on the Two chief systems of the world-Jupiter had 4 moons and the sun has dark spots, Earth’s moon has a rough, uneven surface-Supported theories of Copernicus-Insisted that the universe operated according to mathematical functions.

-Light objects fall as fast as heavy objects-Improves upon the telescope and becomes the first person to use it to study the moon and planets-Religion cannot explain natural phenomena, only math canNewton1643-1727Principia Mathematica(The Mathematical Principals of Natural Philosophy)*The universe is desrcribed as a giant clock and all parts work together perfectly in ways that could be expressed mathematically.

OpticsLaw of gravity*Every object in the universe attracts every other object*The degree of attraction depends on the mass of the objects and the distance between them-Universal laws of motion and gravity – the power of math-How to ask questions about nature and answer them with science.

- Laws of inertia – an object in motion stays in motion unless acted upon by an outside force. An object at rest stays at rest unless acted upon by an outside force – Prime mover – GODWollstonecraft1759-1797A Vindication of the Rights of Woman-Argued that women, like men, need education to become virtuous and useful.

-Women should enter male dominated fields of medicine and politics.

Harvey1578-1657Anatomical Exercise on the Motion of the Heart and Blood in Animals), or, as it came to be known, De Motu Cordis.-Discovered how blood flowed through the body.

-Discovered the reproduction of humans and mammals while at the University of Cambridge.

Andreas Vesalius1514-1564On the Structure of the Human Body-Dissected human corpses and published his observations. He had detailed drawings of human organs, bones, and muscles.

-before Vesalius, people dissected animals to study anatomy because they were believed to be the same as humans & were against the beliefs of the Catholic Church to dissect a human.

Hooke1635-1703Micrographia, (a book describing his microscopic and telescopic observations, and some original work in biology)-Hooke coined the term cell for describing biological organisms- Hooke is known principally for his law of elasticity (Hooke's Law).

-He is also remembered for his work as "the father of microscopy" — it was Hooke who coined the term "cell" to describe the basic unit of life