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Philosophy Lecture 4

Typhoid Mary (Relates to the article cold equation)

Was a simple housemaid that lived in New York City

The presence of Mary was a grave danger for everyone else

She was locked up in a war for 23 years before she died

She was also danger to herself

Cold Equations

Is it really true that the pilot had no choice that he had no alternative

But he did have two choice (a) Marilyn dies (b) eight die: Marilyn ,Barton and six men

Regardless of what choice you use, Marilyn will die

However in Mariylns particular case Choice B gives another difference

It gives Marilyn more time but it gives less time for everyone else

Therefore it seems that Marilyn is sacrificed for the others time

She is at best only sacrificing only a very small amount of her time

It's necessary to weight the good and bad of all the consequences

Narveson's Alterations: changing the sign would make Marilyn a 100% innocent

Problem: If Marilyn 100% then she has done absolutely nothing to have those few moments of her life before she dies

Problem: (2) Barton the pilot is under a contractual obligation.

The pilot is helping MARILYN by not stopping the ship and waiting for the mother ship. What if there was no contract at all and Barton was being a good semaraton

Problem (3): What if we simply change Marilyn into Cosmo and have absolute demand on those hours ingeniously change Marilyn into Cosmo and demands absolute rights on having the last few hours

*If you have an absolute right nothing and no one can override it *

Narvasons see this as the Utilitarian principal

Which action brings about the greatest good for the greatest number

Fundamental right: equal utility

Everyone's utility is equal

Everybody counts as one

Derivative rights: equal right not to be killed

The right not to be killed, sacrificed/ time not being taken away from

Not a single one is absolute

It just means that everyone has a equal right not to be kill or not to be sacrificed for no good reason

Quality of time versus the quantity of time

What is the sum of human happiness and Barton believes it is choice A

According to Narvasons choice B is insanity

If you can't justify the violation of Marilyn's right is then you chose Choice B

Intro to Socrates and Plato

The Pre-Socratics

Reason (nouns)

Arche: What is the origin of everything

The major questions for Pre-socratic researchers

Paley said that the arche is the origin of water


We know that Socrates lived in athenes with very little travel

Fought in the war between athenes and Spartans

Socrate lived more or less in poverty

Lifelong democrat

Socrates got married to prove that it's not true that famous philiosphists cant get married

Wated to understand the internal working s of humans benig

Actions and values

First Philiosophy

Metaphysics (What is real?) : Plato

Epistemology (How do I know?) : Decarte

Ethics (What is good?) : Socrates

Socrates (Continuation)

Socrates entire philiosphy was more on moral philiosophy

Socrates wanted to know what ought to be a value in our lives

What is it that I ought to be persuing

Socrates own answer to what is really important to life and the answer is my own happiness and my own well-being but the most important thing is that I should be happy

The "good life"?





This is not Socrates beings of good beings

Socrates says that genuine happiness is not and must depends on external happiness

Because no one will never be happy for very long

They are outside of our control

They say your possession posses you

Socrates (Cotinuation)

Spcrates says that real happiness must be something that is not subject to change but must be something under your control (it should depend on you, within you and the inside and nothing - else)

Happiness should come within you to make yourself a better person

Virtue (arête)

Something is "virtuous" when it does what it is supposed to do well

When something does what it is supposed to do and does it well then it is virtuous

What are the virtues?

How do I become virtuous?

Strong and blind belief

To know the good is to do the good

Knowledge is virtue

Socrates says to do the good, pre supposes that you know the virtues

To know the good is to do the good

Knowledge itself is virtue

Plato's early dialogues; the historical socarates:

Socrates did not leave a written record

We know indirectly about Socrates records from Platos record

All the early dialogues asks what is x

X represents virtue

Essence: "What pertains to and is inseparable from something else" (Decarte)

Socrates spent his entire life perusing an essential definition of what is X

Some early Platonic Dialogues:

Euthyphro: prior to Socrates' preliminary hearing

The Apology: Socrates' trial

Crito: the night prior to Socrates' execution

Socratic method: elenchus

They are basically a question and answer session

Socrates comes up with question

Socratic Method

Elenchus: WXYZ (where z=not-w)

Socrates demonstrates that where you end up in the reason of

Socrates never inputs information

Chatacteristics of early dialogues

"What is X?"

Ostensive def. (example)

Essential def I. Fails. (to narrow)

Essential def II. Fails. (to broad)

No answer

Aporia: confusion

Platos Middle Dialogues; The Dramatic Socrates

The dialogue amino is usually considered the transition from the early to middle of dialogues

The Forms or Ideas (eidos)

Dialectic replaces elenchus (method)

Over time Plato discovered the essential definition of X

Plato discovered and revealed the one general and universal absolute standard about X

Dialectic: A B C D where D is closer to the truth

Mythos (opinion) to logos ( a reasoned account)

Cornford's Three Pillars

(1) immortality of the soul

(2) knowledge is nothing more than recollection

(3) theory of the Forms/Ideas

Plato usually assumes the truth of one or even two and uses them to prove the truth of the third one

Plato's Late Dialogues

Attempt at a self-criticism