A Report on Computer Peripheral Architecture

Essay by philip_iykeUniversity, Bachelor'sA, February 2010

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Date: December 5, 2009This report will discuss the various peripherals being used in virtual environments. There are three main areas are to be researched into, which are Data storage and representation, Environment manipulation, and Communication. These days, a lot of new peripherals are being introduced which run at greater speeds. Thus there is the need for more interactivity for applications. Most interface are also becoming smaller and more of them are now wireless equippedData storage and representationa.Provide details of areas that the company will need to research. For example, methods and the type of data that may need to be stored and transferred both to and from future peripherals.

The computing industry has a second definition of primary and secondary storage that refers only to secondary storage. In this definition, primary devices refer to the computer's main storage device, such as an IDE or SCSI hard drive. Secondary devices, under this definition, are any non-primary storage device, such as a tape drive, writeable CD-ROMs or removable flash drives.

Each type of storage media has different applications. Hard drives are the best choice for large volume, primary data storage. Regardless of the hard drive technology, the hard drive sacrifices speed for storage capacity and density when compared to volatile storage devices such as RAM. RAM, on the other hand, is not typically used for file system data storage because of its non-permanent nature. Because of its high-speed connection to the computer's CPU, RAM makes the best choice for primary storage. RAM typically can store and retrieve data at speeds that exceed 4 to 5 times that of the fastest hard drives.

Writeable CD-ROM media, tape drives and flash drives make good choices for secondary storage devices (using either definition). These devices are often removable and, with the exception of magnetic tapes, offer higher reliability than hard drives that are dependent on moving parts. Computer users often depend on these devices to store backup or archive information, or to carry data that must be easily portable from site-to-site.

"A character file may be transferred to a host for one of three purposes: for printing, for storage and later retrieval, or for processing. If a file is sent for printing, the receiving host must know how the vertical format control is represented. In the second case, it must be possible to store a file at a host and then retrieve it later in exactly the same form. Finally, it should be possible to move a file from one host to another and process the file at the second host without undue trouble. A single ASCII or EBCDIC format does not satisfy all these conditions." (DATA REPRESENTATION AND STORAGE)Flash drives, tapes or Zip disks. Unlike secondary storage, primary storage is volatile and all primary storage information is lost when the computer is powered down. Secondary storage devices are non-volatile and store information not currently being processed by the computer. Secondary storage devices do not lose information when the device is not powered.

The real world objects that are included must be represented by an object defined in the GISystem software.

o Example: A road network of a town comprises the road surfaces, footpaths, kerbing (and other structures). In a GISystem it will usually be represented by a network of lines defining the centre lines of the roads.

o In a raster model GISystem, a connected series of cells (rather than a line) would represent a road.

* The objects that are represented in a GISystem will have defined boundaries.

o Example: Real world features like forests or soil parcels, do not have sharp boundaries in the real world, however in a GISystem, they will be assigned boundaries.

* The likely uses of the data will again be decisive in determining the form of representation.

o Example: At small scales, roads are usually represented by line networks defining the centre lines of the roads. For engineering uses, larger scales are employed, and the objects represented will include the kerbing and footpaths, the exact shapes of the curves, etc., but not just single lines. Thus, representation depends on usage, which also effects scale.

"Data is transferred from a storage device in the sending host to a storage device in the receiving host. Often it is necessary to perform certain transformations on the data because data storage representations in the two systems are different." (DATA REPRESENTATION AND STORAGE)b.What extra data will be required to be generated by the application to service these new devices?Like data storage, the computer industry uses several different definitions of "speed" when discussing computer performance. The theoretical "speed" of a computer, in purely technical terms, is defined by the actual clock rate of the various components: CPU speed, bus/switch backplane bandwidth and speed, memory bus speeds, hard drives. Most users define "speed" by measuring application performance or usability under normal conditions.

Viewed from a technical standpoint, the type of RAM (registered, unregistered, DDR, SDRAM, etc.), the size of level 1 and level 2 cache on the CPU and the memory bus speed dictate the actual speed. The amount of RAM does not affect speed. However, from a usability standpoint, users will commonly report an increase in "speed" when they add additional RAM. In this case, users are more properly reporting usability or performance and not actual differences in speed.

The clock speed of a CPU, memory bus, PCI bus, switch fabric directly impacts the speed of a computer in both technical terms and in terms of user perceptions. Differences between architectures and combinations of various components obviously have a significant impact that is beyond the scope of discussion in this paper. Barring performance bottlenecks caused by capacity issues, when all other things are held equal, a faster clock rate indicates faster "speed" both technically and in terms of usability. In reality, the clock speeds of various components do not operate in a vacuum and the clock speed alone does not indicate the overall speed of the computer.

The storage of data on various types of media (hard drives, CD-ROM, floppy, flash, etc.) does not affect the actual speed of a computer. However, the various media will often create differences in a user's perception of a computer's "speed." In today's computers, hard drives typically offer the fastest access to data when all other things are held equal. CD-ROMs, while faster than ever before, typically perform more slowly than hard drives or flash-based media. Media that offers faster access to stored data will result in a user perceiving a "faster" computer.

The speed increase also depends on the type of hard drive, CD-ROM or flash drive technology used in the computer. For example, hard drives generally rely on one of five major technologies: IDE, SCSI, Serial ATA, fiber channel or SCA. Each offer advantages and disadvantages and differences in speed. Individual drives differ in speed as well, based on drive size, number of platters and variables.

Today's business and home consumer has a range of input and output devices and computer hardware available. Each device and type of hardware offers distinct advantages in accuracy, convenience, quality and performance. Users must carefully select the proper technology for their needs and understand the underlying components that determine the speed and usability of their computing platforms.

Communicationa.What types of communication systems will be required in the next 5 years to get feedback information to and from an application/game back to the user/gameplayerA lot of devices used in the manipulation of software are knowable to provide feedback to the user. Thus, a user can experience virtual environments that match more of our senses. These senses including touch, hearing, temperature, sight and even smell.

Works CitedBerry, L., Parasuraman, A. and Zeithaml, V. (1994) Improving Service Quality in America: Lessons Learned. The Academy of Management Executive, 8, 32-52Nickerson, R. (2001). Business and Information Systems, Second Edition Upper Saddle River,NJ: Prentice Hall.

Federal Reserve System. (2004). Fedpoint: Float. Retrieved December 5, 2004 fromhttp://www.ny.frb.org/aboutthefed/fedpoint/fed08.htmlDATA REPRESENTATION AND STORAGE. Retrieved fromhttp://www.freesoft.org/CIE/RFC/959/7.htm