Richard the LionHeart

Essay by Mr.PinkCollege, UndergraduateB+, December 1996

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*Richard I - LionHeart

One of the most prominent figures of the Third Crusade was Richard I, nicknamed Lionhearted. He was born on September 8th, 1157 and he later died on April 6, 1199

(Britannica, Vol 10, p.43). He was the third son of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitane (Dictionary of the Middle Ages, Vol 10, p.383). He eventually acquired the nickname LionHeart (which in French, would be Coeur de Lion) due to his incredible amount of courage (Britannica, Vol 10, p.43). There are actually two variations of his nickname; 'lionheart' and 'lionhearted' (Dictionary of the Middle Ages, Vol 10, p.383). In 1168 he became the Duke of Aquitane and then, in 1172, the Duke of Poitiers (Britannica, Vol 10, p.43). King Louis of France got in a fight with King Henry of England (Richard's dad) and Louis became violently ill during the feud and died in 1180 (Jones and Ereira, p.171).

Before Louis died, Henry was in constant battle with his three sons from 1173-74. Eventually his father gave some land in Aquitane to him (Britannica, Vol 10, p.43). In fact, most of Richard's military knowledge came from his many battles with his father (Jones and Ereira, p.171). He had many problems with his father, but his mother seemed to favor him. This is why he became Duke of Aquitane, and thus having control of southwest France (Dictionary of the Middle Ages, Vol 10, p.383).

* Revolutions

In 1183 the Gascons along with 'Young King' Henry (Henry II's eldest son) revolted against King Henry II of England. But in the summer of 1183, young Henry died suddenly and the revolution was over (Britannica, Vol 10, p.43). This left Richard as the heir to England, Normandy, and Anjou. Richard's father wanted...