Essay by Jello3Junior High, 8th gradeB, November 2014

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stages of cellular respiration: 1. Glycolysis(cytoplasm)2.Krebs Cycle(mitochondria matrix)3.Electron Transport Chain(inner mitochondrial membrane)

Lactic acid:(bacteria) waste products are lactic acid and water

Alcoholic: waste products are alcohol, CO2, and water

Stomata: pores of leaf surface; Light reactions: 1st stage of photosynthesis- light is stored and converted into chemical energy; Calvin cycle: Dark reaction in plants; forms glucose

Pigments in a leaf: chlorophyll, carotenoid, tannin, anthocyanin

Homologous chromosomes: contain the same genes (may have different alleles)

Autosomes: non sex chromosomes; 22 pairs

Sister chromatids: two identical copies of chromatids

Centromere: structure that holds two chromatids together

Spindle: microtubules that extended from centioles; moves chromosomes to the center of the cell in Metaphase and across the cell

Centriole: pair makes a centromere

Interphase (G1,S,G2) Early/late prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase, Cytokinesis

G1- Growth and synthesis S- Replication of chromosomes G2- Preparation for division

Mitosis: two identical sister cells (diploid) Meiosis: 4 haploid sex cells

Gametic combinations: 2^# of alleles/genes/chromosomes

Crossing over is an exchange of genes between homologous chromosomes; meiosis prophase 1

Segregation of allele pairs separate during gametic formation and randomly unite at fertilization

DNA: sugar-phosphate backbone; James Watson, Francis Crick, Rosalind Franklin

Building blocks of DNA: nucleotides (nitrogenous base, pentose sugar, phosphate

Transcription (nucleus)DNA is unzipped and the mRNA is created while the other strand remains DNA (base pairing \

Translation(ribosomes)ThemRNA turns into codons / creates proteins

Codon: 3 bases of an mRNA molecule that codes for a specific protein

Homology: Likeness in structure of different organisms

Hardy Weinberg Equation: p^2 + 2pq + q^2 = 1; p = frequency of AA; q = frequency of aa; pq = frequency of Aa

Darwinian fitness is that genetic contribution of the individual to the next generation's gene pool relative to the average for the population

Directional selection occurs when...