Traditions and Encounters Chapter 28 Transoceanic Encounters and Global Connections Outline

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History Chapter 23:Transoceanic Encounters and Global ConnectionsPeopleVasco de Gama- led 4 armored merchant ships from Portugal to India on a long and difficult voyage, resulting in great trade. Wanted “Christians and Spices” in India.

Dom Henrique of Portugal(Prince Henry the Navigator)- famous sea guy. Led many explorations.

Christopher Columbus(Cristoforo Colombo)- searched for a new route to India(for trade). Had Fernando and Isabel of Spain fund his voyage. Miscalculated, and landed in Bahamas. Called naitives Indians, took prisoners, and came back to Spain claiming he found Indies. Had 3 more voyages to there. Began crazy interaction with Americas.

Ferdinand Magellan(Fernao de Magalhaes)- Led the first circumnavigation of the world. Was a Portuguese navigator who seeked a western route to Asian waters. Had terrible conditions and no food on his 5 ships. Reached Guam. Reached Philippines, and had conflict. Magellan was killed. Only 35 out of original 280 men survived and came back to Spain.

Captain James Cook- an English explorer, navigator and cartographer. Ultimately rising to the rank of Captain in the Royal Navy, Cook was the first to map Newfoundland prior to making three voyages to the Pacific Ocean during which he achieved the first European contact with the eastern coastline of Australia and the Hawaiian Islands as well as the first recorded circumnavigation of New ZealandDates1394-1460: life of Prince HenryAugust 1492: Columbus’s first voyage leaves1519-1522: Ferdinand Magellan’s circumnavigation of the worldOtherMotives of Sea Exploration:Portugal- Land was poor and hardscrabble(little farm land, not giving much food), so sailors searched the seas for fish and lands. In 14th Century, found uninhabited Azores and Madeiras Islands- named Canary Islands, and made sugar plantations on them. Eventually also made plantations in Cape Vere Islands, Sao Tome, Principe, and Fernando Po.

Search of trade routes- African and Chinese were “necessities” to Europeans, and Silk Routes and old sea routes became unsafe from Mongols and Muslims. Needed new, faster routes to trade.

Spread of Christianity- Spread by: Crusades, Reconquista(reconquest of Spain from Muslims)Technology:European Ship Innovations- Sternpost Rudder(made in China), Square and triangular sails, magnetic compass(also made in China), astrolabes(to determine longitude and latitude by the position of moon, stars, sun, etc.)TermsVolta do Mar- Instead of going back home against the trade winds, mariners could nowtake the Volta do Mar for a quick, easy, safe way back home.

Bibliography:Traditions and Encounters, 3rd Edition. Jerry Bentley.