Theories of the Origin of the Universe.

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The Big Bang

In cosmology, the Big Bang is the scientific theory that describes the early development and shape of the universe.

The Big Bang Theory is the most accepted theory for the origin and evolution of our universe. The big bang theory states that at some time in the distant past there was nothing. It suggests that around 10 to 14 billion years ago, the part of the universe we can see today was only a few millimetres across. According to this theory, at the beginning of time, all of the matter and energy in the universe was concentrated in a very dense state, from which it "exploded" and this is known as the Big Bang.

The Big Bang marks the instant at which the universe began. From a dense, hot ball of gas, radiation and subatomic particles. This exploded and began expanding rapidly outward. As it expanded it cooled and electrons, protons and neutrons formed.

As the universe grew in size, the temperature dropped, which eventually formed huge numbers of Hydrogen, Helium and Lithium nuclei. After many millions of years the expanding universe, at first a very hot gas, thinned and cooled enough to condense into individual galaxies and then stars. Stars and galaxies began to form about one billion years following the Big Bang. It has since expanded from this hot dense state into the vast and much cooler cosmos we currently inhabit.

Evidence for the Big Bang Theory

American astronomer Edwin Hubble provided some of the greatest supporting evidence for the theory with his 1929 discovery that the light of distant galaxies was generally shifted toward the red end of the spectrum, this is called the Red Shift. This happens when stars are moving rapidly away from Earth. This evidence means that it is obvious that the universe is expanding.

The second evidence is that this theory predicts that 25 percent of the total mass of the universe should be the helium that formed during the first few minutes, an amount that agrees with observations.

Thirdly, a cosmic background noise was the discovery in 1965, is received from every part of the sky. This background radiation has the same intensity and distribution of frequencies in all directions and is not linked with any individual celestial object. It has a black body temperature of -270 deg C and is interpreted as the electromagnetic remnant of the primordial fireball, stretched to long wavelengths by the expansion of the universe.

Other evidence that supports the big bang theory is the Isotropy of observable universe. Proponents of big bang also mention isotropy of the observable universe to one part in one hundred thousand as evidence that big bang is valid. They further state that what minute anisotropy does exist is consistent with big bang hypotheses which include the dark matter hypotheses.

Also Quasars are predicted to only be possible in the early stages of an active cosmos by the Big Bang theory, and observation evidence supports this, as quasar populations become denser the further away when you look at them.

Another piece of evidence for the Big Bang model is that it resolves Olbers' paradox of why the sky is black at night.

But the most convincing evidence is the presence of the cosmic background radiation, a theoretical prediction about photons left over from the big bang. The big-bang theory predicted this remnant radiation, which now glows at a temperature just 3 degrees above absolute zero. Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite, launched in 1989, showed that 99.97% of the radiant energy of the universe was released within the first year of the Big Bang event.

Aboriginal Dreamtime

The 'Aboriginal Dreamtime' is that part of aboriginal culture which explains the origins and culture of the land and its people.

Aborigines have the longest continuous cultural history of any group of people on Earth, dating back by some estimates 65,000 years.

The Dreamtime contains many parts: It is the story of things that have happened, how the universe came to be, how human beings were created and how the Creator intended for humans to function within the cosmos.

In the Dreamtime, Wandjina is the God who made the Earth and Sea and everything else.

The Dreamtime explains how everything was created not only the universe and also explains the rebirth of earth.

They believe both man and animal descended from the spirits and moved over the earth.

One of the main reasons why the Aboriginal dreamtime is so different to the scientific theories is that the dreamtime dates back to centuries before the scientific theories. This is the time where there was no advance technology like telescopes or satellites like we do in present days. They had to make reasons or explanation for the things I didn't understand.

Cultural theory

God's 7 days creation:

The bible presents the creation of the universe by god in a literal seven day creation, however only taking six days to finish his work, and resting on the seventh day. God first created the all elements, then the environment, after that the animal kingdom and lastly but not least humans. This is how the bible informs us on God's universe creation.

The First Day, God said "Let there be light" and light was created.

The Second Day God created the waters, However there was no liquid water, no oceans. All of the water was in the form of a vapour, a "super fog". God then made most of the water to condense onto the cooling earth which straight away formed a whole planet of ocean and cleared the sky.

The Third Day God made the dry grounds. This is also where plate tectonics took place. The earth changed from a smooth one-level molten "cue ball" to a planet with an uneven surface with ocean basins and continental landmasses (countries). Dry ground resulted to the first plants grown.

The Fourth Day the sky was clear and you could see the sun, moon and stars. They were put here for a reason, to act as indicate our seasons, days, and years. Sunset and sunset equals one day. A moon cycle equals a month. And stars presented the seasons.

The Fifth Day a variety of birds and sea creatures were created and blessed.

The Sixth Day a huge amount of land animals was created, including man (later on women, known as Adam and Eve).

The Seventh Day also known as the Sabbath Day was when God finally finished his work, and took a rest. He stopped creating anything else and rest of his work. He blessed this day and made it holly. This is why we go to church on Sunday, the seventh day, the Sabbath day.

This theory is different to the scientific theory, the Big Bang because:

- The only evidence supporting this is the bible. The bible is a record from people all over the world, inspired by God, and Jesus. The bible is also known as God's words

- Christianity is a religion

- Christians believe in this because of their faith and relationship with God, and the bible

- Unlike the Big Bang theory, the universe was created in one week, not as an explosion.

- The Big Bang theory is more scientifically detailed.

- Research and studies is still going on to learn more about the Big Bang (eg. going outer space) but not a lot of research is put in God's creations. You just have to believe in God's words and take it as it is.

- The Big Bang theory has predictions to how the universe could end whereas God say's the time will come when he comes to earth, and we will have the answers to everything.

Bibliography

ohttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Big_Bang

ohttp://www.astro.ucla.edu/~wright/cosmology_faq.html#BBevidence

ohttp://www.astronomytoday.com/cosmology.html

ohttp://www-personal.usyd.edu.au/~apert/native.html

ohttp://dlibrary.acu.edu.au/staffhome/dacasey/Lecture%20Two%20Sacramentality.htm