Investigating The Factors Which Affect The Rate of Reaction Between Limestone and Acid Rain(Hydrochloric Acid)

Essay by beneve99A-, October 2004

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Background knowledge

Rainwater is always slightly acidic, as carbon dioxide in the air dissolves in rain to form carbonic acid. Acid rain is rain, snow or fog that is polluted by acid in the atmosphere and damages the environment. Two common air pollutants acidify rain: sulphur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOX). When these substances are released into the atmosphere, they can be carried over long distances by prevailing winds before returning to earth as acidic rain, snow, fog or dust. When the environment cannot neutralize the acid being deposited, damage occurs.

When an acid is neutralised by a carbonate


Acid + Carbonate à Salt + Water + Carbon Dioxide

Hydrochloric Acid + Calcium Carbonate à Calcium Chloride +Carbon Dioxide +Water

2HCl + CaCO3 Ã CaCl2 + CO2 + H2O

Secondary Source


Factors To Vary And Control

The variables I will be considering are:

· Pressure at which the experiment ensues.

· Surface area of the limestone chip(s).

· Temperature at which the reaction takes place.

· Volume of acid.

· Molarities of acid.

The reason that these are the variables is that if each one was changed even if in a little way, they affect the rate of reaction either making it faster or slower. Though in my experiment I am trying to find out how changing the molarities of the acid affects the rate of reaction. So in this way I must only have the molarities of the acid as a variable, and everything else in the experiment must remain fixed for the experiment to be fair. All of the variables above affect the rates of reactions in their own ways:

· Pressure at which the experiment takes place will affect the experiment as the reaction will occur quicker with...