What makes up the cardiovascular system, and describe the components.How the cardiovascular system works and the effect of exercise on the cardiovascualr system

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Cardiovascular System

Cardio means the heart and vascular means the network of capillaries, arteries and veins.

The vital role of the cardiovascular system in to maintain homeostasis, this depends on the continuous and controlled movement of blood through the capillaries that fill every tissue and reach every cell in the body.

The heart is a hollow pear-shaped muscular organ that is situated between the lungs, and is in the middle of the chest. The heart pumps blood through the body, which supplies the cells with oxygen and nutrients, and removes carbon dioxide and waste products such as lactic acid and urea. It is attached to the breastbone by special connective tissues called ligaments.

The heart has four chambers, a small upper chamber, which is called the atrium, and a large lower chamber called the ventricle, it has one of these on each side. The septum divides the heart in to its two separate pumps, the left and the right.

The average heart's muscle, called cardiac muscle, contracts and relaxes about 70 to 80 times per minute. The heart also contains valves on either side, it contains an Aortic valve that stops the backflow of blood from the aorta into the ventricles, the Bicuspid valve which has two cusps, this also stops backflow of blood from the ventricle to the atria, as the left ventricle contracts the bicuspid valve stops blood going backwards, Tricuspid valve, has three cusps and this also stops the backflow of blood to the atria when the right ventricle contracts, and finally the Pulmonary valve which stops blood back flowing through the ventricle from the pulmonary artery.

Deoxygenated blood enters the right atria from the superior and inferior vena cavae. The right atrium then fills with blood, the blood passes through a one-way valve that takes the...