Ammonia

Essay by eeh120University, Bachelor'sA+, August 2005

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Production Method

Kellogg high capacity single-train plant

Reactants and Products

· Raw material feed is natural gas and air.

· Products are ammonia and natural gas leftovers.

Main Steps

· Feed Preparation: natural gas is compressed and desulfurized

· Reforming: natural gas is mixed with steam and air to make crude syngas

· Syngas Cleanup: purified streams of nitrogen and hydrogen are produced and prepared in correct stoichiometric ratio

· Syngas Compression

· Ammonia Synthesis and Recovery

Steps and Unit Opps

· Feed Preparation

o Natural gas compressor and air compressor (not needed if supply line is high pressure)

o Sulfur removal (usually by hydrogenation, details out of our scope)

· Reforming

o Primary reformer (furnace)

o Secondary reformer (refractory lined vessel with catalyst bed)

· Syngas Cleanup

o High temperature and low temperature shift converters; packed columns (converts CO to CO2)

o Cooling and knockout; heat exchangers and stripper (water removal)

o Absorber-stripper system (CO2 removal)

o Methanator (convert residual carbon oxides back to methane)

o Drier (remove trace water)

· Syngas Compression

o Centrifugal compressor (steam turbine driven); multistage with inter-stage cooling

· Ammonia Synthesis and Recovery

o Reactor: ammonia converter (quench converter)

o Refrigeration to condense ammonia liquid as product

o Small gas purge removes remaining inerts

Resource:

Tim Eggeman.

"Ammonia". Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. October 18, 2001.

John Wiley & Sons: Copyright 2001.