Animal physiology study notes

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Body size is one of animal’s most important traitsLizard can function at outside temperature of 45 C to 55 CEquilibrium with environment is not possible, living thing keep difference between the Environment and the internal body using energyFresh water animal get their ion the mostly from active transport rather getting it from food , and it also lose its ion mostly from passive diffusion into waterFresh water crabs and toad fish is very hyperisomatic to fresh water, so they excrete concentrated urine, one way to solve this problem is to keep their body less permeable to water than normal fresh water animal. Those two kinds believed to come originally from seawaterThe production of diluted urine in fresh water animal isn’t necessary but they produce it because it save energySponge and annelide never left the seawater so this is why their body is isosmotic to seawater(evolutionary adoptation)Hagfish is the only vertebrate that is isosmotic to seawaterThe gills in seawater teleofish is the major organ that eleminate excess ionsMammals is one of few groups that able to concentrate their urineShark is slightly hyperosmotic to seawater even though they have lower concentrations of inorganic ions than the sea water ; hyperosmoticity is created as the results of using urea and trimethylamine (TMAO)Stenhaline is a group of animals which is able to survive in low range salinityEuryhaline a group of animal that can survive in a broad range of salinityOsmoconformer change their blood osmotic pressure to match the ambient osmotic pressureOsmoregulation: maintain relatively stable as the osmotic ambient pressure rise or fallHomeostasis is the process by which the system mantains internal constancyTropical rainforest is biome that has the most numbers of plants and animalsThe difference between the protein channel and ionic channel:The ease with which a solute can diffuse directly through the lipid interior of the cell membrane depends on the hydrophobic or hydrophilic nature of the solute, Lipid solute such steriod hormones is hydrophobic so it can pass easily because it dissolves in the interior hydrophobic part of the cell membrane, however, hydrophilic can’t pass throughcell membrane consists of hydrophilic part located outside and hydrophobic part inside,things that also can pass it is O2, thyroid hormones and nitric oxideIonic channel is selective channel and it depends on the electrical gradient between the outside membrane and insideGate channel is different form voltage channel, stretch gated channel, phosohorylation gated channel and ligand gated channelfick diffusion equation measures the permeability of cell membraneAdoptation depends on natural selectionBibliography:animal physiology, 2nd edition, Bulliet & Crossley