Everything you need to know about a cell - definitions in outline form, interpretation of Honors Biology intro.

Essay by niki_nmnCollege, Undergraduate January 2005

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This isnt written in paper form, but a relaible list of terms to help you orginize your thoughts, or clarify problems. I made an A in this Honors Biology!

I.Chemical foundations for the Cells

A.Organization of matter -(elements, compounds, mixtures)

Elements- materials that cannot be decomposed into substances with different properties.

Compounds-made of different elements in fixed and unvarying proportions

Mixtures-two or more elements present in varying proportions

1.Atoms and ions

a.atoms- smallest portion of an element that still retains properties of the element; contains protons, neutrons, and electrons

b.molecules- units of two or more atoms

c.atomic nucleus- core of atom that accounts for almost all its mass; (-)electrons move rapidly around it

d.atomic number- number of (+) protons

e.mass number- number of protons and neutrons

f.ion- an atom (or compound) that has gained or lost 1 or more electrons, thus is positive or negative in charge

2.Isotopes- vary in number of neutrons

a.radioactive isotopes- have unstable nuclei; breakdown over time

3.Arrangement of electrons

a. orbitals- regions of space around nucleus where electrons may be at any instant. Each contains 1 or 2 electrons

b. electrons closest to nucleus are at low energy levels

B. Bonds between Atoms

1. ionic bond- two ions bound by mutual attraction of opposite charges (Na+Cl-)

2. covalent bonds- atoms share electrons

a. non-polar- both atoms exert same pull on shared electrons

b. polar- one atom exerts more pull than the other on shared electrons; one atom is slightly positive, the other slightly negative; net charge zero

3. Hydrogen bond- an electronegative atom weakly attracts an H atom that is covalently bonded to a different atom

4. Hydrophobic interactions (not true bonds)

a. hydrophilic- substance is attracted to water molecules due to polar nature

b. hydrophobic- substance is repelled by water molecules...