Essay by mahmoodnajjarHigh School, 12th gradeA+, November 2014

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u "Effective leaders are those with sufficient self-confidence to gather round them people who are better than they are and then let them get on with their job without interfering." Niall Fitzgerald, Chairman Reuters

v "When a boss tells you to pick up a pig and walk, you pick it up and walk, and when he tells you to sit down and rest, you sit down. You do that right the way through the day. And what's more, no back talk." F W Taylor, Scientific Manager

w "The leadership style common in many family businesses tends to create employees of marginal ability. Owners acting as "parents" tend to do things and make decisions for employees rather than forcing them to take the initiative." Quentin Fleming, Keep the family baggage out of the family business

x "Leadership is the activity of influencing people to cooperate towards goals and objectives which they come to find desirable." Ordway Tead, Educator

y "A leader has got to have an ability to switch 360 degrees from strategic thinking to narrow operational focus when required." Tony Tahar, CEO, Anglo-American

Q 1. Identify and explain the three leadership styles referred to in quotations u, v and w.

[6 marks]

A1 . Quotation:

u Laissez-faire - grants responsibility and authority to the group and lets staff act as they wish. Horizontal communication between peers. Group may drift as no direction is given by the leader. Often known as leadership by exception. Its success depends entirely upon the competence of the employees.(*)

v Autocratic - leaders are authoritative; orders are imposed with no opportunity for employees to be involved in decision-making, which stifles initiative. Communication is one way. Success relies on the ability of the leader.

w Paternalistic - "father like". This type of leader will...