rescue workers

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a garrisoned place; especially : a military post or fortified settlement in areas currently or originally under Spanish control

St Augustine

a seacoast city in NE Florida: founded by the Spanish 1565; oldest city in the U.S.


Spanish missions in California comprise a series of 21 religious and military outposts; established by Catholic priests of the Franciscan order between 1769 and 1833, to spread Christianity among the local Native Americans

Pope's Rebellion

This occurred in 1680 and it was an Indian uprising. This uprising was caused because of the Spanish Roman Catholic's mission in New Mexico began to oppress the natives by attempting to derive them of their religious customs. The rebels raided through the Providence destroying churches, killing priests, and slaughtering Spanish settlers along the way. After this attack the Spanish needed almost half a century to regain New Mexico again.


System of rewarding conquistadors tracts of land, including the right to tax and exact labor from native Americans


a man of mixed race, especially the offspring of a Spaniard and an American Indian.

Jacques Cartier

was a French explorer of Breton origin who claimed what is now Canada for France

Samuel de Champlain

French explorer in Nova Scotia who established a settlement on the site of modern Quebec (1567-1635)

Coureures de bois

French fur traders who lived among the Native Americans

Robert de LaSalle

was a French explorer. He explored the Great Lakes region of the United States and Canada, the Mississippi River, and the Gulf of Mexico.

John Cabot

was an Italian navigator and explorer whose 1497 discovery of parts of North America under the commission of Henry VII of England is commonly held to have been the first European encounter with the mainland of North America since the Norse Vikings visits to...