Essay by PaperNerd ContributorCollege, Undergraduate October 2001

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Referencing Techniques Correct referencing techniques are a critical component of any assignment.

Use of either MLA or APA guidelines are acceptable. Consistency is important so that if, for example, you decide to use APA, you must follow this style throughout your paper.

The following pages will provide highlights and examples of the APA style. For more in depth information on completing a research paper including proper use of referencing techniques go to Click on "Reference Desk"� and then click on "Research Helper"�.

APA STYLE 1) References All material used in preparing an assignment must be referenced at the end of the paper. This provides an acknowledgement of sources used and gives the reader information that can be accessed if desired.

In preparing reference entries the following is critical: a) The reference section begins on a new page.

b) The heading "References"� is centered on the first line.

c) The references begin on the line following "References"� and are organized alphabetically by surnames of the first authors. A double space is needed between references.

d) A hanging indent can be used. That is, do not indent the first line of any entry but indent any additional lines 5 spaces.

e) Most reference entries have three components: Authors: Authors are listed in the same order as in the source using surnames and initials. Commas separate all authors and an ampersand (&) is used instead of the word "and"�.

Publication Date: In parenthesis following the authors, with a period following the parenthesis close.

Source Reference: Includes the title or the title, journal, volume, pages (for journal article), city of publication and publisher. Italicize the title and subtitles of books and capitalize only the FIRST WORD of the title and subtitle. Capitalize the names of periodicals .

2) In -Text...