Essay by EssaySwap ContributorUniversity, Bachelor's February 2008

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The truth does not change according to our ability to stomach it.

"acategories.asp?Author=Flannery+O%27Connor+%281925%2D1964%29" If the facts don't fit the theory, change the facts.

"acategories.asp?Author=Albert+Einstein+%281879%2D1955%29" everyone since teh beginning fo time has had their own views and standards for the way that everything around them should be. these views are seemingly set in stone and unchangeable. there are many examples in the past of terrible consequences for expressing views other than the norm at the time. more recently this apprehension to change was described by Thomas Kuhn in his book, The Structure of Scientific Revoulutions.

Kuhn?s book was focused on the scientific world. He said that normal science ?means research firmly based upon one or more past scientific achievments, achievments thatsome particular scientific community aacknowledges for a time as supplying the foundation for its further practice? (Kuhn 10). These achievments needed to be unprecedented and open-ended so as to attract a group away from competing ideas and to leave all sorts of problems for this group to resolve.

these achievments are called paradigms. a paradigm is defined by Kuhn as ?an accepted canon of scientific practice, including laws, theory, applications, and instrumentation, that provides a model for a particular coherent tradition of scientific research? (Trigger 5).

When results arise that cannot be explained through the current paradigm, a new paradigm may begin to form. the new paradigm originates with new theories that are proposed as a result of the anomalies that were found. ?to be accepted as a paradigm, a theory must seem better than its competitors, but it need not, and in fact never does, explain all the facts with which it can be confronted? (Kuhn 17-18). when the new paradigm is finally accepted, a paradigm-shift occurs. the paradigm shift represents Kuhn?s ?scientific revolution?. Once the paradigm-shift is completed normal...