Management and Leadership

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Management and LeadershipUniversity of PhoenixMGT 330: Theory, Practice, and ApplicationJuly , 2008Management and LeadershipManagers and leaders, are they the same? Is it possible to be one without the other? The terms manager and leader are often used interchangeably. Although the terms have different meanings, people usually relate one with the other. This paper will differentiate between management and leadership, examine the role and responsibilities of leaders in creating and maintaining a healthy organizational culture, and make recommendations to create and maintain a healthy organizational culture.

Management versus LeadershipManagementThe definition of manager according to Encyclopedia Britannica Online is "one that manages" and "a person who conducts business or household affairs" (2008). Managers are given the authority by their organization to lead employees, therefore, they have subordinates. So even though managers are in charge, they are not leaders in terms of the definition. Managers do as they are directed, and in turn direct their subordinates.

Management requires planning, schedules, production, and time constraints; basically management is task oriented.

LeadershipA leader does not necessarily hold a management position. A leader, as defined by Encyclopedia Britannica Online is "a person who leads" and "a person who has commanding authority or influence" (2008). Leaders do not have subordinates, they have followers. Leadership inspires, motivates and sets the direction to achieve goals; leaders focus on people. Both people and organizations want leaders. People want leaders to assist them in accomplishing their goals. Organizations want leaders to not only motivate, but to provide organizational direction for employees to follow. According to Kouzes and Posner (1994), five key behaviors for what is wanted of leaders from both people and organizations are: "(a) challenge the process, (b) inspire a shared vision, (c) enable others to act, (d) model the way, and (e) encourage the hear t" (p. 960).

Leaders challenge the process. Effective leaders challenge the normal process. That is not to say that they are always controversial. Leaders challenge current beliefs and practices and take the initiative to propose and establish better ways of doing things. Leaders do not wait for things to be done, they do them.

Leaders inspire a shared vision. Using authority does not appeal to leaders or their followers. Effective leaders inspire and motivate others by appealing to their shared beliefs.

Leaders enable others to act. They make information readily available and empower people to their full potential. Leaders help others achieve their goals.

Leaders model the way. Leaders demonstrate their beliefs in their actions. They speak honestly about their vision and do what they believe is right.

Leaders encourage the heart. Showing appreciation and providing rewards are ways leaders show encouragement and motivate others.

ComparisonsLeaders create change, focus on leading people, have followers, have long-term goals and are proactive. They create a vision, approach the vision by setting the direction, facilitate in decision making, and use personal charisma. Leaders appeal to the heart, are persuasive by selling their vision, want achievement, take risks, and break rules. They also have a transformational style, exchange excitement for work, use conflict to resolve issues, and make new roads. Most of all, leaders are concerned about what is right, give credit to others, and take the blame for what goes wrong.

Managers generate stability, focus on managing work, have subordinates, have short term goals and are reactive. They have objectives, approach the objectives by planning, make the decisions, and use formal authority. Managers appeal to the head, are persuasive by stating what needs to be done, want results, minimize risks, and make rules. They also have a transactional style, exchange money for work, avoid conflict, and use existing roads. Generally, managers are concerned with being right, take credit for a good job, and blame others for what goes wrong.

Roles and Responsibilities of LeadersThe roles and responsibilities of leaders in creating and maintaining a healthy organizational culture are: creating a vision and leading by example, empowering, inspiring and energizing people, and building and leading a team.

Creating a Vision and Leading by ExampleEffective leaders create a vision that allows people to see exciting opportunities and possibilities. When leaders see an opportunity for positive change, they seize it and create direction for others to follow while being adaptive to necessary change. Leaders set an example not only by creating the standards, but by being the standards. In doing this, they develop trust and respect and create a following.

Empowering, Inspiring and Energizing PeopleLeaders inspire and motivate others to follow a shared vision and achieve team and personal goals; goals that previously might have been thought impossible. They believe in others, are open to ideas, and empower others to act on those ideas. Communication is an essential part of leading. An effective leader must be open and honest, setting clear guidelines and expectations. In communicating, a leader should empathize with others, be willing to discuss and solve problems, and most important listen to his followers.

Building and Leading a TeamCreating conditions which allow others to grow and work independently is just as important as following a common goal. Building and leading a team begins with using a team approach, involving everyone, and facilitating. Leaders are responsible for individual as well as collective achievement and improvement.

RecommendationsThe recommendations to create and maintain a healthy organizational culture are few, but fundamental. Management and leadership should be interdependent rather than independent. Using the best qualities of both effective managers and leaders creates outstanding management and leadership. Trainings should be conducted by the organizations to assist managers in becoming leaders, and assist leaders in achieving management positions. New management should emphasize on people, include team concepts, and bring out the best in their followers by focusing on their strengths and improving on their weaknesses. They should coach, provide feedback, encourage group thinking, and decision making. New management should also monitor progress by supervising and delegating but not over manage and command. They should get people excited, inspired, motivated, challenged, and committed to the cause. Outstanding management and leadership is about positive attitude.

ConclusionIn an ideal situation, a manager and a leader would be one in the same. A person can be an effective manager or leader; but to be outstanding, a person needs to be both a manager and a leader. Outstanding leaders combine effective strategic and interpersonal skills. For many, leadership traits are inherent, but fortunately, leadership traits can also be learned. "The organization's total support, marketing, and customer focus comes from each individual employee working together as one" (Kelly & Kumle, 2006, ¶ 27). By using a combined effort of management and leadership strategies, not only do individuals improve, but so does the organization.

ReferencesBateman, T. S., & Snell, S. A. (2007). Management: leading and collaborating in a competitive world (7th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

Encyclopedia Britannica Online. (2008). Retrieved July 1, 2008, from, N., & Kumle, J. (2006, August). Leadership vs. management. SuperVision, 67(8), p. 11. (peer reviewed).

Kouzes, J., and Posner, B., (1994). An extension of the leadership practices inventory to individual contributors. Educational and Psychological Measurement, (54)4, 959-966. DOI: 10.1177/0013164494054004012 (peer reviewed).