Study notes on the structure and function of various groups of molecules including proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids (fats)

Essay by skierdude1000College, Undergraduate February 2005

download word file, 2 pages 4.5

a. -A protein is a polymer of amino acids

-Amino acids form a particular sequence

-R group varies between amino acids and determined type of amino acid

-Primary structure of a protein is it's unique sequence and number of amino acids

-Determined by genetics

-Determines other structures peptide bonds

-Secondary structure of a protein is the three-dimensional shape including the various folding and coilings of the polypeptide chain

-Result of hydrogen bonds at regular intervals along the polypeptide backbone

-Folding produces a spiral Alpha Helix associated with globular proteins

-Folding may produce a beta-pleated sheet associated with fibrous proteins

-Tertiary structure of a protein consists of irregular contortions from bonding between the side chains (R groups) of the various amino acids

-Determined by hydrogen bonding between R groups of amino acids

-Determined by hydrophobic interactions between nonpolar side chains

-Determined by disulfide bonds between sulfur atoms on the amino acids with sulfhydryl groups on their side chains

-Determined by weak van der Waals interactions

-Quaternary Structure is the overall protein structure that results from the aggregation of two or more polypeptide chains into one macromolecule

-Some molecules important to organism's that are proteins are: keratin, collagen, silk, hemoglobin, and enzymes

-Structural formula of protein:

b. Types of carbohydrates: monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharide


-Simplest kind of carbohydrate

-Consists of a single sugar molecule like fructose or glucose

-Can be a ketone sugar or an aldehyde sugar depending on the location of the carbonyl group

-Glucose, fructose

-Major fuel source for cellular respiration

-Their carbon skeletons serve as raw material for the synthesis of other types of small organic molecules like amino acids and fatty acids


-Consists of two monosaccharides joined by a glycosidic linkage (covalent bond formed between two monosaccharides by a dehydration reaction)

-Sucrose, maltose

-In plants, most...