How to get proper rest

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Answers to Exercise C2-1 Thesis statements

1. a; b is too broad 2. a; b is too vague 3. b; a is too factual 4. a; b is too broad 5. b; a is too factual

Answers to Exercise C4-1 Topic sentences

Topic sentence: Quilt making has served as an important means of social, political, and artistic expression for women. Eliminate the following sentence: They used dyed cotton fabrics much like the fabrics quilters use today; surprisingly, quilters' basic materials haven't changed that much over the years.

Answers to Exercise W3-1 Active verbs

Possible revisions:

a. The Prussians defeated the Saxons in 1745. b. Ahmed, the producer, manages the entire operation. c. The video game programmers awkwardly paddled the sea kayaks. d. Emphatic and active; no change e. Protesters were shouting on the courthouse steps.

1. The monkey that had escaped from the zoo made a strange sound in the willow tree. 2. Her letter acknowledged the student's participation in the literacy program. 3. Emphatic and active; no change 4. The work of Paul Oakenfold and Sandra Collins influenced my choice of music for my

audition. 5. The only responsibility my parents gave me was putting gas in the brand-new Mitsubishi

they bought me my senior year.

Answers to Exercise S1-1 Parallelism

Possible revisions:

a. Police dogs are used for finding lost children, tracking criminals, and detecting bombs and illegal drugs.

b. Hannah told her rock climbing partner that she bought a new harness and that she wanted to climb Otter Cliffs.

c. It is more difficult to sustain an exercise program than to start one. d. During basic training, I was told not only what to do but also what to think. e. Jan wanted to drive to the wine country or at least to Sausalito.

1. Activities on Wednesday afternoons include fishing trips, dance lessons, and computer classes.

2. Arriving at Lake Powell in a thunderstorm, the campers found it safer to remain in their cars than to set up their tents.

3. The streets were not only too steep but also too narrow for anything other than pedestrian traffic.

4. More digital artists in the show are from the South Shore than from the North Shore.

Answer key for A Writer's Reference, 6th ed., by Diana Hacker (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2007).

5. To load her toolbox, Anika the Clown gathered hats of different sizes, put in two tubes of face paint, arranged a bundle of extra-long straws, added a bag of colored balloons, and tossed in a battery-powered hair dryer.

Answers to Exercise S2-1 Needed words

Possible revisions:

a. A good source of vitamin C is a grapefruit or an orange. b. The women entering VMI can expect haircuts as short as those of the male cadets. c. The driver went to investigate, only to find that one of the new tires had blown. d. The graphic designers are interested in and knowledgeable about producing posters for

the balloon race. e. Reefs are home to more species than any other ecosystem in the sea.

1. Very few black doctors were allowed to serve in the Civil War, and their qualifications had to be higher than those of white doctors.

2. Producers of violent video games are not capable of or interested in regulating themselves. 3. Vassily likes mathematics more than he likes his teacher. [or . . . more than his teacher

does.] 4. The inspection team saw that many historic buildings had been damaged by the

earthquake. 5. American English has borrowed more words from Spanish than from any other language.

Answers to Exercise S5-1 Mixed constructions

Possible revisions:

a. Using surgical gloves is a precaution now taken by dentists to prevent contact with patients' blood and saliva.

b. A career in medicine, which my brother is pursuing, requires at least ten years of chal- lenging work.

c. The pharaohs had bad teeth because tiny particles of sand found their way into Egyptian bread.

d. Recurring bouts of flu caused the team to forfeit a record number of games. e. This box contains the key to your future.

1. When prostate cancer is diagnosed early, it is often curable. 2. Our method of travel and our destination determine how many suitcases we are allowed

to pack. 3. Dyslexia is a learning disorder that impairs reading ability. 4. Even though Ellen had heard French spoken all her life, she could not speak it. 5. Understanding artificial intelligence code is a critical skill for computer game designers.

Answer key for A Writer's Reference, 6th ed., by Diana Hacker (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2007).

Answers to Exercise S3-1 Misplaced or awkwardly placed modifiers

Possible revisions:

a. Our English professor asked us to reread the sonnet very carefully, looking for subtleties we had missed on a first reading.

b. The monarch arrived at the gate in a gold carriage pulled by four white horses. c. Rhonda and Sam talked almost all night about her surgery. d. A coolhunter is a person who can find the next wave of fashion in the unnoticed corners

of modern society. e. Not all geese fly beyond Narragansett for the winter.

1. Carlos sat solemnly and didn't smile even once during the comedy. 2. Angelie wrote in her class notebook about collecting peacock feathers with her uncle

David. 3. Several recent studies have encouraged heart patients to watch their cholesterol levels

more carefully. 4. The garden's centerpiece is a huge sculpture called Walking in Place that was carved by

three women. 5. The old Marlboro ads depicted a man on horseback smoking a cigarette.

Answers to Exercise S3-2 Dangling modifiers

Possible revisions:

a. When I was ten, my parents took me on my first balloon ride. b. To replace the gear mechanism, you can use the attached form to order the part by mail. c. As I nestled in the cockpit, the pounding of the engine was muffled only slightly by my

helmet. d. After studying polymer chemistry, Phuong found computer games less complex. e. When I was a young man, my mother enrolled me in tap dance classes, hoping I would

become the next Savion Glover.

1. While I was working as a ranger in Everglades National Park, a Florida panther crossed the road in front of my truck one night.

2. By following this new procedure, we will reduce our mailing costs significantly. 3. Serving as president of the missionary circle, Grandmother is responsible for raising

money for the church. 4. After buying an album by Ali Farka Toure, Silas understood the rich and rolling rhythms

of Malian music. 5. Understanding the high-tech needs of drivers, designers of the Volkswagen Phaeton have

created an innovative dashboard.

Answer key for A Writer's Reference, 6th ed., by Diana Hacker (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2007).

Answers to Exercise S4-1 Shifts in person and number

Possible revisions: When online dating first became available, many people thought that it would simplify romance. Hopeful sin-

gles believed that they could type in a list of criteria - sense of humor, college education, green eyes, good job - and a database would select the perfect mate. Thousands of people signed up for services and filled out their pro- files, confident that true love was only a few mouse clicks away. As it turns out, however, virtual dating is no easier than traditional dating. Online daters still have to contact the people they find, exchange e-mails and phone calls, and meet in the real world. Although a database might produce a list of possibilities and screen out obviously undesirable people, it can't predict chemistry. More often than not, people who seem perfect online just don't click in person. Electronic services do help single people expand their pool of potential dates, but they're no substitute for the hard work of romance.

Answers to Exercise S4-2 Shifts in verb tense

Possible revisions: The English colonists who settled in Massachusetts received assistance at first from the local Indian tribes,

but by 1675 there had been friction between the English and the Indians for many years. On June 20 of that year, Metacomet, whom the colonists called Philip, led the Wampanoag tribe in the first of a series of attacks on the colonial settlements. The war, known today as King Philip's War, raged on for over a year and left three thousand Indians and six hundred colonists dead. Metacomet's attempt to retain power in his native land failed. Finally he too was killed, and the victorious colonists sold his wife and children into slavery.

The Indians did not leave records of their unfortunate encounters with the English settlers, but the settlers recorded some of their experiences at the hands of the Indians. One of the few accounts to survive was written by a captured colonist, Mrs. Mary Rowlandson. She was a minister's wife who was kidnapped by an Indian war party and held captive for eleven weeks in 1676. Her history, A Narrative of the Captivity and Restoration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson, tells the story of her experiences with the Wampanoags. Although it does not paint a completely balanced picture of the Indians, Rowlandson's narrative, which is considered a classic early American text, shows its author to be a keen observer of life in an Indian camp.

Answers to Exercise S4-3 Distracting shifts

Possible revisions:

a. Courtroom lawyers have more than a touch of theater in their blood. b. The interviewer asked if we had brought our proof of birth and citizenship and our

passports. c. Reconnaissance scouts often have to make fast decisions and use sophisticated

equipment to keep their teams from detection. d. After the animators finish their scenes, the production designer arranges the clips according

to the storyboard and makes synchronization notes for the sound editor and the composer. e. Madame Defarge is a sinister figure in Dickens's A Tale of Two Cities. On a symbolic level,

she represents fate; like the Greek Fates, she knits the fabric of individual destiny.

1. You should protect yourself from the sun, especially on the first day of extensive exposure. 2. Our neighbors told us that the island was being evacuated because of the coming storm.

They also suggested that we take the northern route to the mainland. 3. Rescue workers put water on her face and lifted her head gently onto a pillow. Finally, she

opened her eyes. 4. In my first tai chi class, the sensei asked if I had ever done yoga stretches and if I had

good balance. 5. Artists have often been seen as a threat to society, especially when they refuse to conform to

conventional standards of taste.

Answer key for A Writer's Reference, 6th ed., by Diana Hacker (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2007).

Answers to Exercise S6-1 Choppy sentences

Possible revisions:

a. The X-Men comic books and Japanese woodcuts of kabuki dancers, all part of Marlena's research project on popular culture, covered the tabletop and the chairs.

b. Our waitress, costumed in a kimono, had painted her face white and arranged her hair in an upswept lacquered beehive.

c. Students can apply for a spot in the foundation's leadership program, which teaches thinking and communication skills.

d. Shore houses were flooded up to the first floor, beaches were washed away, and Brant's Lighthouse was swallowed by the sea.

e. Laura Thackray, an engineer at Volvo Car Corporation, designed a pregnant crash-test dummy to address women's safety needs.

1. Noticing that the sky was glowing orange and red, I bent down to crawl into the bunker. 2. The Market Inn, located on North Wharf, doesn't look very impressive from the outside.

The food, however, is excellent. 3. He walked up to the pitcher's mound, dug his toe into the ground, and swung his arm

around backward and forward. Then he threw the ball and struck the batter out. 4. Eryn and Maeve, who have known each other since kindergarten, have decided to start a

business renovating homes for disabled people. 5. The first football card set, released by the Goudey Gum Company in 1933, featured only

three football players: Red Grange, Bronko Nagurski, and Knute Rockne.

Answers to Exercise S6-2 Subordination

Possible revisions:

a. These particles, known as "stealth liposomes," can hide in the body for a long time without detection.

b. Irena, a competitive gymnast majoring in biochemistry, intends to apply her athletic experience and her science degree to a career in sports medicine.

c. Because students, textile workers, and labor unions have loudly protested sweatshop abuses, apparel makers have been forced to examine their labor practices.

d. Developed in a European university, IRC (Internet Relay Chat) was created as a way for a group of graduate students to talk about projects from their dorm rooms.

e. The cafeteria's new menu, which has an international flavor, includes everything from enchiladas and pizza to pad thai and sauerbraten.

1. When Victor switched on his remote-control lawn mower, it began to shudder and emit clouds of smoke.

2. Because iguanas are dependent on ultraviolet rays from the sun, in the winter months they must be put under ultraviolet-coated lights that can be purchased at most pet stores.

3. Founded in 1991, the Civil War Trust spearheads a nationwide campaign to protect America's Civil War battlefields.

4. We are short on inventory because we did not expect to receive so many large orders so quickly.

5. Although I am certain that Mother spread her love equally among us all, she had a way of making each of us feel very special in our own way.

Answer key for A Writer's Reference, 6th ed., by Diana Hacker (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2007).

Answers to Exercise S6-3 Subordination

Possible revisions:

a. Working as an aide for the relief agency, Gina distributed food and medical supplies. b. Janbir, who spent every Saturday learning tabla drumming, noticed with each hour of

practice that his memory for complex patterns was growing stronger. c. When the rotor hit, it gouged a hole about an eighth of an inch deep in my helmet. d. My grandfather, who was born eighty years ago in Puerto Rico, raised his daughters the

old-fashioned way. e. By reversing the depressive effect of the drug, the Narcan saved the patient's life.

1. Fatima, who majored in early childhood education, studied Persian miniature painting after college.

2. As I was losing consciousness, my will to live kicked in. 3. The carpenter used a sliding compound miter saw to make intricate edges on the

cabinets. 4. While using origami to solve some tricky manufacturing problems, Ernie decided to leave

engineering and become an artist. 5. The undulating waves glinted in the sun as the paddlers synchronized their strokes.

Answers to Exercise S7-1 Sentence variety

Possible revisions: Making architectural models is a skill that requires patience and precision and also an art that illuminates a

design. Architects come up with a grand and intricate vision and then draftspersons convert that vision into blueprints. The model maker follows the blueprints to build a miniature version of the structure. Modelers can work in traditional materials like wood and clay and paint or in newer materials like Styrofoam and liquid polymers. Some modelers still use cardboard, paper, and glue; other modelers prefer glue guns, deformable plastic, and thin aluminum and brass wire. Although the modeler may seem to be making a small mess in the early stages of model building, in the end the modeler has completed a 1⁄100-scale structure. Architect Rem Koolhaas has insisted that plans reveal the logic of a design and that models expose the architect's vision. The model maker's art makes vision real.

Answers to Exercise W2-1 Wordy sentences

Possible revisions:

a. Martin Luther King Jr. set a high standard for future leaders. b. Aanika has loved cooking since she could first peek over a kitchen tabletop. c. Bloom's race for the governorship is futile. d. A successful graphic designer must have technical knowledge and an eye for color and

balance. e. You will deliver mail to all employees.

1. Seeing the barrels, the driver slammed on his brakes. 2. A well-stocked bookshelf should have classical literature and important modern works. 3. China's huge work population affects high-tech manufacturing globally. 4. A typical autocross course consists of at least two straightaways, numerous slaloms, and

several sharp turns. 5. Mehrdad always had cantaloupe, lemon yogurt, and black coffee for breakfast.

Answer key for A Writer's Reference, 6th ed., by Diana Hacker (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2007).

Answers to Exercise W2-2 Wordy sentences

Possible revisions: To: District managers From: Margaret Davenport, Vice President Subject: Customer files

Some of our sales representatives have been failing to log daily reports of their client calls in our electronic customer file. Also, some representatives are not routinely checking the customer file.

Our clients sometimes receive repeated calls from us when a sales representative does not realize that the client has already been contacted. Repeated calls annoy our customers and make us appear disorganized.

Effective immediately, direct your representatives to do the following:

• Record each customer contact in the electronic file at the end of each day. • Check the electronic file at the beginning of each day to guard against repeated calls.

Thank you for cooperating in this important matter.

Answers to Exercise W4-1 Appropriate language

Possible revisions:

a. In my youth, my family was poor. b. This conference will help me serve my clients better. c. Have you ever been accused of beating a dead horse? d. Government studies show a need for after-school programs. e. Passengers should try to complete the customs declaration form before leaving the plane.

1. We learned that the mayor had been embezzling money from city employees' pension funds.

2. After a quick look at new research on textiles, Patricia's team decided to visit local clothing manufacturers.

3. The nurse said that the patient had died because the surgeon had made a mistake. 4. Beginning tai chi slowly brings benefits quickly. 5. The important fact is that the company is losing money.

Answers to Exercise W4-2 Jargon

Possible revisions: Dear Ms. Jackson:

We at Nakamura Reyes value our relationship with Creative Software, and I look forward to seeing you next week at the trade show in Fresno. Please let me know when you will have time to meet with Mr. Reyes and me to discuss our production schedule. It's crucial that we all agree on our 2004-2005 product release dates.

Before we meet, however, I have some new information. Our user-friendly approach to the new products will make longer user testing periods necessary. The enclosed data should help you adjust your timeline; let me know right away if you require any additional information before making these adjustments.

Before we meet in Fresno, Mr. Reyes and I will outline any other topics for discussion. Thanks for your help.


Sylvia Nakamura

Answer key for A Writer's Reference, 6th ed., by Diana Hacker (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2007).

Answers to Exercise W4-3 Sexist language

Possible revisions:

a. Dr. Geralyn Farmer is the chief surgeon at University Hospital. Dr. Paul Green is her assistant.

b. All applicants want to know how much they will make. c. Elementary school teachers should understand the concept of nurturing if they intend to

be successful. d. Students of high-tech architecture pick a favorite when they study such inspirational

architects as Renzo Piano and Zaha Hadid. e. If we do not stop polluting our environment, we will perish.

1. A firefighter must always be on call even when off duty. 2. The chairperson for the new program in digital art is Ariana Tamlin, an accomplished

portrait painter and computer programmer. 3. In the gubernatorial race, Lena Weiss, a defense lawyer, easily defeated Harvey Tower, an

architect. 4. Recent military history has shown that women and men are equally skilled, reliable, and

resourceful as combat helicopter pilots. 5. An emergency room head nurse must know how to use sophisticated digital equipment to

keep track of all patient data and guide the medical team.

Answers to Exercise W5-1 Exact words

Possible answers:

1. decay (verb): decompose, disintegrate, break up, corrode, rot, putrify, fester, molder; 2. difficult (adjective): hard, tough, rigorous, formidable, arduous, tricky, demanding, complex; 3. hurry (verb): rush, accelerate, bustle, speed up, scamper, scramble, quicken, hasten, dash, dart; 4. pleasure (noun): enjoyment, contentment, euphoria, gratification, satisfaction, relish, gusto, fun, entertainment, amusement; 5. secret (adjective): concealed, covert, cryptic, hidden, arcane, clandestine, undercover, furtive, stealthy, mysterious, unknown; 6. talent (noun): ability, genius, skill, faculty, flair, gift, power, forte

Answers to Exercise W5-3 Misused words

Possible revisions:

a. We regret this delay; thank you for your patience. b. Ada's plan is to acquire education and experience to prepare herself for a position as

property manager. c. Tiger Woods, the ultimate competitor, has earned millions of dollars just in endorsements. d. Many people take for granted that public libraries have up-to-date networked computer

systems. e. The effect of Gao Xinjian's novels on Chinese exiles is hard to gauge.

1. Waste, misuse of government money, security and health violations, and even pilfering have become major problems in some government agencies.

2. Designers of handheld devices have to understand that changes in ambient temperatures can damage the tiny circuit boards.

3. Grand Isle State Park is bordered on three sides by water. 4. The Old World ambience of the restaurant intrigued us. 5. The person who complained to the human resources manager wishes to remain


Answer key for A Writer's Reference, 6th ed., by Diana Hacker (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2007).

Answers to Exercise W5-4 Standard idioms

Possible revisions:

a. Queen Anne was so angry with Sarah Churchill that she refused to see her again. b. Correct c. The parade moved off the street and onto the beach. d. The frightened refugees intend to make the dangerous trek across the mountains. e. What type of wedding are you planning?

1. Be sure to report on the danger of releasing genetically engineered bacteria into the atmosphere.

2. Why do you assume that embezzling bank assets is so different from robbing the bank? 3. The wilderness guide seemed capable of showing us where the trail of petroglyphs was

located. 4. Correct 5. Andrea plans to join the Peace Corps after graduation.

Answers to Exercise W5-5 Figures of speech

Possible revisions:

a. John stormed into the room like a hurricane. b. Some people insist that they'll always be available to help, even when they haven't been

before. c. The Cubs easily beat the Mets, who were in trouble early in the game today at Wrigley

Field. d. We ironed out the wrinkles in our relationship. e. My mother accused me of evading her questions when in fact I was just saying the first

thing that came to mind.

1. Patricia was used to working long hours to get her assignments done. 2. No matter how many books he reads, André can never seem to satisfy his hunger for

knowledge. 3. In an era of cutbacks and outsourcing, the best high-tech workers discover that having

diverse skills is essential to continued success. 4. There are too many managers at corporate headquarters. 5. Juanita told Kyle that keeping secrets would be dangerous.

Answer key for A Writer's Reference, 6th ed., by Diana Hacker (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2007).

Answers to Exercise G5-1 Sentence fragments

Possible revisions:

a. Listening to the CD her sister had sent, Mia was overcome with a mix of emotions: happiness, homesickness, nostalgia.

b. Cortés and his soldiers were astonished when they looked down from the mountains and saw Tenochtitlán, the magnificent capital of the Aztecs.

c. Although my spoken Spanish is not very good, I can read the language with ease. d. There are several reasons for not eating meat. One reason is that dangerous chemicals

are used throughout the various stages of meat production. e. To learn how to sculpt beauty from everyday life is my intention in studying art and


1. The panther lay motionless behind the rock, waiting silently for its prey. 2. Mother loved to play all our favorite games: canasta, Monopoly, hide-and-seek, and even

kick-the-can. 3. Correct 4. The owners of the online grocery store rented a warehouse in the Market district, an area

catering to small businesses. 5. If a woman from the desert tribe showed anger toward her husband, she was whipped in

front of the whole village and shunned by the rest of the women.

Answers to Exercise G5-2 Sentence fragments

Possible revisions: Browsing the Web has become a way of life, but some people think it is destroying a way of life that we will

never recover. Our grandparents and parents feared that the age of television - starting with Howdy Doody and progressing through MTV and The Apprentice - would create generations of viewers who were content to sit for hours and hours, passively watching images flit before their eyes. Cable television now offers far more passive entertainment than previous generations could ever have imagined: hundreds of channels and an endless supply of round-the-clock programming. The World Wide Web has the potential to top even cable television's reach, making access to information easy and available to people anywhere in the world at any time.

One major risk that our grandparents and parents feared is still an issue today. In a culture based on images, the written word may become an endangered species. As our brains eventually adapt to greater and greater levels of stimulation, will we continue to be able to focus on a page of print? Before we send out too many alarms, however, we should remember that the World Wide Web is based more on words than television ever was. There is some evidence that those who spend time browsing the Web are doing more, not less, reading - unlike TV viewers. Some Web surfers prefer to run their eyes over the words on the screen, an activity that is, after all, reading. Others download information and read the printouts. While it is true that television has reduced our nation's level of literacy, the World Wide Web could well advance it. Only the future will tell.

Answers to Exercise G6-1 Run-on sentences

Possible revisions:

a. The city had one public swimming pool that stayed packed with children all summer long.

b. The building is being renovated, so at times we have no heat, water, or electricity. c. The view was not what the travel agent had described. Where were the rolling hills and

the shimmering rivers? d. All those gnarled equations looked like toxic insects; maybe I was going to have to rethink

my major. e. The city government had good reason to fear a major earthquake: Most [or most] of the

business district was built on landfill.

Answer key for A Writer's Reference, 6th ed., by Diana Hacker (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2007).

1. The car was hardly worth trading because the frame was twisted and the block was warped.

2. The next time an event is canceled because of bad weather, don't blame the meteorologist. Blame nature.

3. Ray, who was fluent in American Sign Language, could sign as easily as he could speak. 4. Susanna arrived with a stack of her latest hats, hoping the gift shop would place a big

winter order. 5. There was one major reason for John's wealth: His [or his] grandfather had been a


Answers to Exercise G6-2 Run-on sentences

Possible revisions:

a. Wind power for the home is a supplementary source of energy that can be combined with electricity, gas, or solar energy.

b. Correct c. In the Middle Ages, when the streets of London were dangerous places, it was safer to

travel by boat along the Thames. d. "He's not drunk," I said. "He's in a state of diabetic shock." e. Are you able to endure boredom, isolation, and potential violence? Then the army may

well be the adventure for you.

1. Death Valley National Monument, located in southern California and Nevada, is one of the hottest places on earth. Temperatures there have soared as high as 134 degrees Fahrenheit.

2. When Anamaria opened the boxes crammed with toys, out sprang griffins, dragons, and phoenixes.

3. Correct 4. The center of the French Quarter of New Orleans is Jackson Square, one of the most

beautiful urban spaces in the United States. 5. The neurosurgeon explained that the medication could have one side effect: It [or it] might

cause me to experience temporary memory loss.

Answers to Exercise G6-3 Run-on sentences

Possible revisions: Some parents and educators argue that requiring uniforms in public schools would improve student behavior

and performance. They think that uniforms give students a more professional attitude toward school; moreover, they believe that uniforms help create a sense of community among students from diverse backgrounds. But parents and educators should consider the drawbacks to requiring uniforms in public schools.

Although uniforms do create a sense of community, they do this by stamping out individuality. Youth is a time to express originality, a time to develop a sense of self. One important way young people express their identities is through the clothes they wear. Of course, it could be argued that the self-patrolled dress code of high school students is stricter than any school-imposed code. Nevertheless, trying to control dress habits from above will only lead to resentment or to mindless conformity.

If children are going to act like adults, they need to be treated like adults who are allowed to make their own choices. Telling young people what to wear to school merely prolongs their childhood. Requiring uniforms undermines the educational purpose of public schools, which is not just to teach facts and figures but also to help young people grow into adults who are responsible for making their own choices.

Answer key for A Writer's Reference, 6th ed., by Diana Hacker (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2007).

Answers to Exercise G1-1 Subject-verb agreement

a. Subject: friendship and support; verb: have; b. Subject: Shelters; verb: offer; c. Subject: source; verb: is; d. Subject: chances; verb: are; e. Subject: card and haiku; verb: were

1. Subject: professor nor assistants; verb: were; 2. Subject: hours; verb: have; 3. Subject: button and marbles; verb: were; 4. Subject: smoke; verb: fills; 5. Subject: performers; verb: were

Answers to Exercise G1-2 Subject-verb agreement

a. One of the main reasons for elephant poaching is the profits received from selling the ivory tusks.

b. Correct c. A number of students in the seminar were aware of the importance of joining the discus-

sion. d. Batik cloth from Bali, blue and white ceramics from Delft, and a bocce ball from Turin

have made Angelie's room the talk of the dorm. e. Correct

1. Correct 2. Adorning a shelf in the lab are a Vietnamese figurine, a set of Korean clay gods, and an

American plastic village. 3. The presence of certain bacteria in our bodies is one of the factors that determine our

overall health. 4. Correct 5. Neither the explorer nor his companions were ever seen again.

Answers to Exercise G3a-1 Pronoun-antecedent agreement

Possible revisions:

a. Every presidential candidate must appeal to a wide variety of ethnic and social groups to win the election.

b. David lent his motorcycle to someone who allowed a friend to use it. c. The aerobics teacher motioned for all the students to move their arms in wide, slow cir-

cles. d. Correct e. Applicants should be bilingual if they want to qualify for this position.

1. Drivers who refuse to take a blood or breath test will have their licenses suspended for six months.

2. Why should people learn a second language? One reason is to sharpen their minds. 3. Trying to anticipate problems and avert disaster, the Department of Education issued

new guidelines for school security. 4. Seven qualified Hispanic agents applied, all hoping for a career move that would let them

use their language and cultural training on more than just translations. 5. Anyone who notices any suspicious activity should report it to the police.

Answer key for A Writer's Reference, 6th ed., by Diana Hacker (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2007).

Answers to Exercise G3a-2 Pronoun-antecedent agreement

Possible revisions: A common practice in businesses is to put each employee in a cubicle. A typical cubicle resembles an office,

but its walls don't reach the ceiling. Many office managers feel that a cubicle floor plan has its advantages. Cubicles make a large area feel spacious. In addition, they can be moved around so that new employees can be accommodated in their own work areas. Of course, the cubicle model also has problems. Typical employees are not as happy with a cubicle as they would be with a traditional office. Also, productivity can suffer. Neither a manager nor a frontline worker can ordinarily do his or her best work in a cubicle because of noise and lack of privacy. Workers can hear their neighbors tapping on computer keyboards, making telephone calls, and muttering under their breath.

Answers to Exercise G3b-1 Pronoun reference

Possible revisions:

a. Some professors say that an engineering student should have hands-on experience with dismantling and reassembling machines.

b. Because she had decorated her living room with posters from chamber music festivals, her date thought she was interested in classical music. Actually she preferred rock.

c. In Ethiopia, a person doesn't need much property to be considered well-off. d. Marianne told Jenny, "I am worried about your mother's illness." [or ". . . about my

mother's illness."] e. Though Lewis cried for several minutes after scraping his knee, eventually the pain


1. Our German conversation group is made up of six people, three of whom I had never met before.

2. Many people believe that the polygraph test is highly reliable if conducted by a licensed examiner.

3. Parent involvement is high at Mission San Jose High School. Parents participate in many committees and activities that affect all aspects of school life.

4. Because of his outspoken attitude toward fascism, Paul Robeson was labeled a Communist.

5. The report points out that lifting the ban on Compound 1080 would prove detrimental, possibly even fatal, to the bald eagle.

Answer key for A Writer's Reference, 6th ed., by Diana Hacker (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2007).

Answers to Exercise G3c-1 Pronoun case (such as I versus me)

a. Correct [But the writer could change the end of the sentence: . . . than he is.] b. Correct [But the writer could change the end of the sentence: . . . that she was the

coach.] c. She appreciated his telling the truth in such a difficult situation. d. The director has asked you and me to draft a proposal for a new recycling plan. e. Five close friends and I rented a station wagon, packed it with food, and drove to Mardi

Gras on a three-day weekend.

1. Correct 2. Ushio, the last rock climber up the wall, tossed Teri and her the remaining pitons and

carabiners. 3. The programmer realized that she and the interface designers were creating an entirely

new Web application. 4. My desire to understand classical music was aided by my working as an usher at

Symphony Hall. 5. The shower of sinking bricks caused him and his diving partner to race away from the

collapsing seawall.

Answers to Exercise G3c-2 Pronoun case (such as I versus me)

her, he, she, them, their

Answers to Exercise G3d-1 Who versus whom

a. The roundtable featured scholars whom I had never heard of. [or . . . scholars I had never heard of.]

b. Correct c. Correct d. Daniel always gives a holiday donation to whoever needs it. e. So many singers came to the audition that Natalia had trouble deciding whom to select

for the choir.

1. My cousin Sylvie, whom I am teaching to fly a kite, watches us every time we compete. 2. Correct 3. Correct 4. The people who ordered their medications from Canada were retirees who don't have

health insurance. 5. Whom did the committee select?

Answer key for A Writer's Reference, 6th ed., by Diana Hacker (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2007).

Answers to Exercise G4-1 Adjectives and adverbs

Possible revisions:

a. Did you do well on last week's chemistry exam? b. With the budget deadline approaching, our office has hardly had time to handle routine

correspondence. c. Correct d. The customer complained that he hadn't been treated nicely. e. Of all my relatives, Uncle Roberto is the cleverest.

1. When you answer the phone, speak clearly and courteously. 2. Who was most upset about the loss? Was it the coach or the quarterback or the owner of

the team? 3. To a novice skateboarder, even the basic ollie seems really challenging. 4. After checking how badly I had been hurt, my sister dialed 911. 5. If the college's Web page had been updated more regularly, students would have learned

about the new course offerings.

Answers to Exercise G2a/b/c/d/e-1 Irregular verbs

a. When I get the urge to exercise, I lie down until it passes. b. Grandmother had driven our new SUV to the sunrise church service on Savage

Mountain, so we were left with the station wagon. c. A pile of dirty rags was lying at the bottom of the stairs. d. How did the computer know that the gamer had gone from the room with the blue ogre to

the hall where the gold was heaped? e. Abraham Lincoln took good care of his legal clients; the contracts he drew for the Illinois

Central Railroad could never be broken.

l. The burglar must have gone immediately upstairs, grabbed what looked good, and taken off.

2. Correct 3. Correct 4. In her junior year, Cindy ran the 440-yard dash in 51.1 seconds. 5. Larry claimed that he had drunk a bad soda, but Esther suspected the truth.

Answers to Exercise G2a/b/c/d/e-2 Standard English verb forms

a. The glass sculptures of the Swan Boats were prominent in the brightly lit lobby. b. Visitors to the glass museum were not supposed to touch the exhibits. c. Our church has all the latest technology, even a closed-circuit television. d. Christos didn't know about Marlo's promotion because he never listens. He is always

talking. e. Correct

1. Has there ever been a time in your life when you were too depressed to get out of bed? 2. Correct 3. We have changed our plan and are waiting out the storm before leaving. 4. Winter training for search-and-rescue divers consists of building up a tolerance to icy

water temperatures. 5. How would you feel if a loved one had been a victim of a crime like this?

Answer key for A Writer's Reference, 6th ed., by Diana Hacker (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2007).

Answers to Exercise G2f/g-1 Verb tense and mood

Possible revisions:

a. Correct b. Watson and Crick discovered the mechanism that controls inheritance in all life: the

workings of the DNA molecule. c. When Hitler decided to kill the Jews in 1941, did he know that Himmler and his SS had

had mass murder in mind since 1938? d. Correct e. Correct

1. Don Quixote, in Cervantes's novel, is an idealist ill suited for life in the real world. 2. Visiting the technology museum inspired the high school seniors and reminded them that

science could be fun. 3. Correct 4. When the director yelled "Action!" I forgot my lines, even though I had practiced my part

every waking hour for three days. 5. Correct

Answers to Exercise E1-1 Helping verbs and main verbs

a. The new manager should be making her first announcement in the next hour. b. There is nothing in the world that TV has not touched on. c. Did the landlord tell you that he's going to raise the rent? d. With luck, visitors can find a beautiful view of the old temple in the rain and mist. e. The benefits of diet and exercise have been given much attention by health care


1. The swimming pool was filled early this year, on May 1. 2. A serious accident happened at the corner of Main Street and First Avenue last night. 3. My family has been going to Sam's restaurant ever since we moved to this neighborhood. 4. I have eaten Thai food only once before. 5. How often does Sandy take her daughter to the doctor?

Answers to Exercise E1-2 Conditional verbs

Possible revisions:

a. The electrician might have discovered the broken circuit if she had gone through the modules one at a time.

b. If Verena wins a scholarship, she will go to graduate school. c. Whenever there is a fire in our neighborhood, everybody comes out to watch. d. Sarah will take the paralegal job unless she gets a better offer. e. If I lived in Budapest with my cousin Szusza, she would teach me Hungarian cooking.

1. If the science fiction festival started Monday, we wouldn't need to plan entertainment for our visitors.

2. If everyone had voted in the last election, the results would have been very different. 3. The tenants will not pay the rent unless the landlord fixes the furnace. 4. When dark gray clouds appear on a hot summer afternoon, a thunderstorm often follows. 5. Our daughter would have drowned if Officer Blake hadn't risked his life to save her.

Answer key for A Writer's Reference, 6th ed., by Diana Hacker (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2007).

Answers to Exercise E1-3 Verbs followed by gerunds or infinitives

Possible answers:

a. I enjoy riding my motorcycle. b. The tutor told Samantha to come to the writing center. c. The team hopes to work hard and win the championship. d. Ricardo and his brothers miss surfing during the winter. e. The babysitter let Roger stay up until midnight.

1. Pollen makes me sneeze. 2. The club president asked us to work three hours at the rummage sale. Or The club

president asked to speak to us about the next fundraiser. 3. Next summer we plan to visit six countries in Europe. 4. My supervisor intends to argue for larger bonuses for our group. 5. Please stop running in the halls. Or Please stop to buy milk on your way home from school.

Answers to Exercise E3-1 Articles

The Moon Cannot Be Stolen Ryokan, who was a Zen master, lived a simple life in a little hut at the foot of a mountain. One evening a thief

visited the hut only to discover there was nothing in it to steal. Ryokan returned and caught him. "You may have come a long way to visit me," he told the prowler, "and you

should not return empty-handed. Please take my clothes as a gift." The thief was bewildered. He took Ryokan's clothes and slunk away. Ryokan sat naked, watching the moon. "Poor fellow," he mused. "I wish I could give him this beautiful moon."

Answers to Exercise E2/4/5-1 Omissions and repetitions

a. There are some cartons of ice cream in the freezer. b. I don't use the subway because I am afraid. c. The prime minister is the most popular leader in my country. d. We tried to get in touch with the same manager whom we spoke to earlier. e. Recently there have been a number of earthquakes in Turkey.

1. We visited an island where several ancient ruins are being excavated. 2. In this city it is difficult to find a high-paying job. 3. Beginning knitters are often surprised that their fingers are sore at first. 4. There is a banyan tree in our backyard. 5. The CD that teaches Italian for opera lovers was stolen from my backpack.

Answers to Exercise E2/4/5-2 Order of cumulative adjectives

a. an attractive young Vietnamese woman b. a dedicated Catholic priest c. her old blue wool sweater d. Joe's delicious Scandinavian bread e. many beautiful antique bird cages

1. nine miniature oval brass lamps 2. several tiny yellow tulips 3. the ancient yellow Mongolian gingko tree 4. a small square brick courtyard 5. several charming Italian restaurants

Answer key for A Writer's Reference, 6th ed., by Diana Hacker (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2007).

Answers to Exercise E2/4/5-3 Present versus past participles

a. Listening to everyone's complaints all day was irritating. b. The long flight to Singapore was exhausting. c. Correct d. After a great deal of research, the scientist made a fascinating discovery. e. That blackout was one of the most frightening experiences I've ever had.

1. Correct 2. The directions to the new board game seem extremely complicated. 3. Correct 4. Correct 5. Even after the lecturer went over the main points again, the students were still confused.

Answers to Exercise E2/4/5-4 Prepositions showing time and place

a. Whenever we eat at the Centerville Diner, we sit at a small table in the corner of the room.

b. Correct c. On Thursday, Nancy will attend her first Pilates class at the community center. d. Correct e. We decided to go to a restaurant because there was no fresh food in the refrigerator.

1. I don't feel safe walking in my neighborhood at night. 2. If the train is on time, it will arrive at six o'clock in the morning. 3. In the corner of the room there is a large bookcase with a pair of small Russian dolls

standing on the top shelf. 4. She licked the stamp, stuck it on the envelope, put the envelope in her pocket, and

walked to the nearest mailbox. 5. The mailbox was at the intersection of Laidlaw Avenue and Williams Street.

Answers to Exercise P1-1 The comma

a. Alisa brought the injured bird home and fashioned a splint out of Popsicle sticks for its wing.

b. Considered a classic of early animation, The Adventures of Prince Achmed used hand-cut silhouettes against colored backgrounds.

c. If you complete the enclosed evaluation form and return it within two weeks, you will receive a free breakfast during your next stay.

d. Correct e. Roger had always wanted a handmade violin, but he couldn't afford one.

1. While I was driving, a huge delivery truck ran through a red light. 2. He pushed the car beyond the tollgate and poured a bucket of water on the smoking

hood. 3. Lit by bright halogen lamps, hundreds of origami cranes sparkled like diamonds in sun-

light. 4. Correct 5. Many musicians of Bach's time played several instruments, but few mastered them as

early or played with as much expression as Bach.

Answer key for A Writer's Reference, 6th ed., by Diana Hacker (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2007).

Answers to Exercise P1-2 The comma

a. The cold, impersonal atmosphere of the university was unbearable. b. An ambulance threaded its way through police cars, fire trucks, and irate citizens. c. Correct d. After two broken arms, three cracked ribs, and one concussion, Ken quit the varsity

football team. e. Correct

1. We prefer our staff to be orderly, prompt, and efficient. 2. For breakfast the children ordered cornflakes, English muffins with peanut butter, and

cherry Cokes. 3. Correct 4. Correct 5. Animation master Hironobu Sakaguchi makes computer-generated scenes look realistic,

vivid, and seductive.

Answers to Exercise P1-3 The comma

a. Choreographer Alvin Ailey's best-known work, Revelations, is more than just a crowd pleaser.

b. Correct c. Correct d. A member of an organization that provides housing for AIDS patients was also appointed

to the commission. e. Brian Eno, who began his career as a rock musician, turned to meditative compositions

in the late seventies.

1. I had the pleasure of talking to a woman who had just returned from India, where she had lived for ten years.

2. Patrick's oldest sister, Fiona, graduated from MIT with a degree in aerospace engineering. 3. Correct 4. Correct 5. The flame crawled up a few blades of grass to reach a low-hanging palmetto branch,

which quickly ignited.

Answers to Exercise P1-4 Major uses of the comma

a. Cricket, which originated in England, is also popular in Australia, South Africa, and India.

b. At the sound of the starting pistol, the horses surged forward toward the first obstacle, a sharp incline three feet high.

c. After seeing an exhibition of Western art, Gerhard Richter escaped from East Berlin and smuggled out many of his notebooks.

d. Corrie's new wet suit has an intricate blue pattern. e. Correct

1. Correct 2. Founded in 1868, Hampton University was one of the first colleges for African Americans. 3. Aunt Emilia was an impossible, demanding guest. 4. Correct 5. At the bottom of the ship's rusty hold sat several well-preserved trunks, reminders of a

bygone era of sea travel.

Answer key for A Writer's Reference, 6th ed., by Diana Hacker (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2007).

Answers to Exercise P1-5 All uses of the comma

a. On January 15, 2004, our office moved to 29 Commonwealth Avenue, Mechanicsville, VA 23111.

b. Correct c. Ms. Carlson, you are a valued customer whose satisfaction is very important to us. d. Mr. Mundy was born on July 22, 1939, in Arkansas, where his family had lived for four

generations. e. Correct

1. Correct 2. For centuries people believed that Greek culture had developed in isolation from the

world. Today, however, scholars are acknowledging the contributions made by Egypt and the Middle East. [A comma after centuries is optional.]

3. Correct 4. Fortunately, science is creating many alternatives to research performed on animals. 5. While the machine was printing, the oversize paper jammed.

Answers to Exercise P2-1 Unnecessary commas

a. Correct b. Tricia's first artwork was a big blue clay dolphin. c. Some modern musicians (trumpeter John Hassell is an example) blend several cultural

traditions into a unique sound. d. Myra liked hot, spicy foods such as chili, jambalaya, and buffalo wings. e. On the display screen was a soothing pattern of light and shadow.

1. Correct 2. Jolie's parents encouraged independent thinking but required respect for others'

opinions. 3. Miranda told her boss that she had discovered a new plastic as strong as metal. 4. The streets that three hours later would be bumper to bumper with commuters were

quiet and empty except for a few prowling cats. 5. Some first-year architecture students expect to design intricate structures immediately.

Answers to Exercise P3-1 The semicolon and the comma

a. Do not ask me to be kind; just ask me to act as though I were. b. When men talk about defense, they always claim to be protecting women and children,

but they never ask the women and children what they think. c. When I get a little money, I buy books; if any is left, I buy food and clothes. d. Correct e. Wit has truth in it; wisecracking is simply calisthenics with words.

1. Standing in the middle of the road is very dangerous; you get knocked down by the traffic from both sides.

2. Correct 3. Once the children were in the house, the air became more vivid and more heated; every

object in the house grew more alive. 4. We don't know what we want, but we are ready to bite someone to get it. 5. I've been rich and I've been poor; rich is better.

Answer key for A Writer's Reference, 6th ed., by Diana Hacker (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2007).

Answers to Exercise P3-2 The semicolon and the comma

a. Strong black coffee will not sober you up; the truth is that time is the only way to get alcohol out of your system.

b. It is not surprising that our society is increasingly violent; after all, television desensitizes us to brutality at a very early age.

c. There is often a fine line between right and wrong, good and bad, truth and deception. d. Correct e. Severe, unremitting pain is a ravaging force, especially when the patient tries to hide it

from others.

1. Another delicious dish is the chef's special, a roasted duck rubbed with spices and stuffed with wild rice.

2. Martin Luther King Jr. had not intended to be a preacher; initially, he had planned to become a lawyer.

3. We all assumed that the thief had been Jean's boyfriend, even though we had seen him only from the back.

4. The Victorians avoided the subject of sex but were obsessed with death; our contemporaries are obsessed with sex but avoid thinking about death.

5. Some educators believe that African American history should be taught in separate courses; others prefer to see it integrated into survey courses.

Answers to Exercise P4-1 The colon, the semicolon, and the comma

a. Correct [Either It or it is correct.] b. If we have come to fight, we are far too few; if we have come to die, we are far too many. c. The travel package includes a round-trip ticket to Athens, a cruise through the Cyclades,

and all hotel accommodations. d. The media portray my generation as lazy, although polls show that we work as hard as

the twentysomethings before us. e. Fran Lebowitz has this advice for parents: "Never allow your child to call you by your first

name. He hasn't known you long enough."

1. Harry Potter prevails against pain and evil for one reason: His [or his] heart is pure. 2. While traveling through France, Rose visited the Loire Valley, Chartres, the Louvre, and

the McDonald's stand at the foot of the Eiffel Tower. 3. There are three types of leave: annual leave, used for vacations; sick leave, used for

medical appointments and illness; and personal leave, used for a variety of personal reasons.

4. Carl Sandburg once asked these three questions: "Who paid for my freedom? What was the price? And am I somehow beholden?"

5. Correct

Answer key for A Writer's Reference, 6th ed., by Diana Hacker (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2007).

Answers to Exercise P5-1 The apostrophe

a. Correct b. The innovative shoe fastener was inspired by the designer's young son. c. Each day's menu features a different European country's dish. d. Sue worked overtime to increase her family's earnings. e. Ms. Jacobs is unwilling to listen to students' complaints about computer failures and

damaged disks.

1. Correct 2. Three teenage sons can devour about as much food as four full-grown field hands. The

only difference is that they don't do half as much work. 3. We handle contracts with NASA and many other government agencies. 4. Patience and humor are key tools in a traveler's survival kit. 5. Correct

Answers to Exercise P6-1 Quotation marks

a. As for the advertisement "Sailors have more fun," if you consider chipping paint and swabbing decks fun, then you will have plenty of it.

b. Correct c. After winning the lottery, Juanita said that she would give half the money to charity. d. After the movie Vicki said, "The reviewer called this flick 'trash of the first order.' I guess

you can't believe everything you read." e. Correct

1. "That's the most beautiful seashell I've ever seen!" shouted Alexa. 2. "Get your head in the game, and the rest will come," advised the coach just before the

whistle. 3. Gloria Steinem once twisted an old proverb like this: "A woman without a man is like a

fish without a bicycle." 4. Correct 5. Have you heard the Cowboy Junkies' rendition of Hank Williams's "I'm So Lonesome I

Could Cry"?

Answers to Exercise P7a/b/c-1 End punctuation

Although I am generally rational, I am superstitious. I never walk under ladders or put shoes on the table. If I spill the salt, I go into frenzied calisthenics picking up the grains and tossing them over my left shoulder. As a result of these curious activities, I've always wondered whether knowing the roots of superstitions would quell my irrational responses. Superstition has it, for example, that one should never place a hat on the bed. This superstition arises from a time when head lice were common and placing a guest's hat on the bed stood a good chance of spreading lice through the host's bed. Doesn't this make good sense? And doesn't it stand to reason that if I know that my guests don't have lice I shouldn't care where their hats go? Of course it does. It is fair to ask, then, whether I have changed my ways and place hats on beds. Are you kidding? I wouldn't put a hat on a bed if my life depended on it!

Answer key for A Writer's Reference, 6th ed., by Diana Hacker (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2007).

Answers to Exercise P7d/e/f/g/h-1 Other punctuation marks

a. A client has left his or her cell phone in our conference room. b. The films we made of Kilauea on our trip to Hawaii Volcanoes National Park illustrate a

typical spatter cone eruption. c. Correct d. Correct e. Of three engineering fields - chemical, mechanical, and materials - Keegan chose

materials engineering for its application to toy manufacturing.

1. Correct 2. In studies in which mothers gazed down at their infants in their cribs but remained

facially unresponsive (for example, not smiling, laughing, or showing any change of expression), the infants responded with intense weariness and eventual withdrawal. [or . . . unresponsive - for example, not smiling, laughing, or showing any change of expression - the infants responded. . . .]

3. There are three points of etiquette in poker: (1) always allow someone to cut the cards, (2) don't forget to ante up, and (3) never stack your chips.

4. In Lifeboat, Alfred Hitchcock appears (some say without his knowledge) in a newspaper advertisement for weight loss.

5. Correct

Answers to Exercise M4-1 Abbreviations

a. Correct b. Some combat soldiers are trained by government diplomats to be sensitive to issues of

culture, history, and religion. c. Correct d. How many pounds have you lost since you began running four miles a day? e. Denzil spent all night studying for his psychology exam.

1. My favorite professor, Dr. Barker, is on sabbatical this semester. 2. Correct 3. Correct 4. My mother's birthday was on Friday the 13th this year. 5. Many first-time users of Flash panic before the complex menus - that is, some develop a

blank stare and the tingling of a migraine.

Answer key for A Writer's Reference, 6th ed., by Diana Hacker (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2007).

Answers to Exercise M6-1 Italics (underlining)

a. Howard Hughes commissioned the Spruce Goose, a beautifully built but thoroughly impractical wooden aircraft.

b. The old man screamed his anger, shouting to all of us, "I will not leave my money to you worthless layabouts!"

c. I learned the Latin term ad infinitum from an old nursery rhyme about fleas: "Great fleas have little fleas upon their back to bite 'em, / Little fleas have lesser fleas and so on ad infinitum."

d. Correct e. Neve Campbell's lifelong interest in ballet inspired her involvement in the film The

Company, which portrays a season with the Joffrey Ballet.

1. Yasmina spent a year painting white flowers in imitation of Georgia O'Keeffe's Calla Lilies. 2. Correct 3. Correct 4. Cecily watched in amazement as the tattoo artist made angles and swooping loops into

the Gothic letter G. 5. The blend of poetic lyrics and progressive instruments on Seal's Human Being makes it

one of my favorite CDs.

Answers to Exercise M1-1 Spelling

November 1, 2004

To: Patricia Wise cc: Richard Chang From: Constance Mayhew Subject: Express Tours annual report

Thank you for agreeing to draft the annual report for Express Tours. Before you begin your work, let me outline the initial steps.

First, it's essential for you to include brief profiles of top management. Early next week, I'll provide profiles for all managers except

Samuel Heath, whose biographical information is being revised. You should edit these profiles carefully, then format them according to the enclosed instructions. We may ask you to include other employees' profiles at some point.

Second, you should arrange to get complete financial information for fiscal year 2004 from our comptroller, Richard Chang. (Helen Boyes, too, can provide the necessary figures.) When you get this information, proceed according to the plans we discussed in yesterday's meeting. By the way, you will notice from the figures that the sale of our Charterhouse division did not significantly affect net profits.

Third, you should submit a [or the] first draft of the report by December 15. I assume that you own a laser printer, but if you don't, you can submit a disk and we'll print out a draft here. Of course, you should proofread your writing.

I am quite pleased that you can take on this project. If I or anyone else at Express Tours can answer questions, don't hesitate to call.

Answer key for A Writer's Reference, 6th ed., by Diana Hacker (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2007).

Answers to Exercise M2-1 The hyphen

a. Correct b. The swiftly moving tugboat pulled alongside the barge and directed it away from the oil

spill in the harbor. c. Correct d. Your dog is well known in our neighborhood. e. Roadblocks were set up along all the major highways leading out of the city.

1. We knew we were driving too fast when our tires skidded on the rain-slick surface. 2. The Black Death reduced the population of some medieval villages by two-thirds. 3. Correct 4. Olivia had hoped to find a pay-as-you-go plan to finance the construction of her

observatory. 5. Gail Sheehy writes that at age twenty-five many people assume that the choices they

make are irrevocable.

Answers to Exercise M3-1 Capital letters

a. Assistant Dean Shirin Ahmadi recommended offering more world language courses. b. Correct c. Kalindi has an ambitious semester, studying differential calculus, classical Hebrew,

brochure design, and Greek literature. d. Lydia's aunt and uncle make modular houses as beautiful as modernist works of art. e. We amused ourselves on the long flight by discussing how spring in Kyoto stacks up

against summer in London.

1. When the Ducati will not start, I try a few tricks with the ignition key: jiggling it to the left, pulling it out a quarter of an inch, and gently pulling down on it.

2. Correct [Either It or it is correct.] 3. After World War II, Aunt Helena left Poland to study in Italy. 4. When we drove through the South last summer, we were amazed to see kudzu growing

wild along the road. 5. Following in his sister's footsteps, Leonid is pursuing a degree in marketing research.

Answers to Exercise A3-1 Evaluating arguments

a. hasty generalization; b. false analogy; c. biased language; d. faulty cause-and-effect reasoning; e. either . . . or fallacy

1. faulty cause-and-effect reasoning; 2. either . . . or fallacy; 3. hasty generalization; 4. ad hominem; 5. biased language; 6. faulty cause-and-effect reasoning; 7. non sequitur; 8. false analogy; 9. hasty generalization; 10. non sequitur

Answers to Exercise B1-1 Identifying nouns

a. sun, assistance; b. Pride, bottom, mistakes; c. Success, confidence; d. censorship, flick, dial; e. flower, concrete (noun/adjective), cloverleaf

1. Truthfulness, ruthlessness; 2. Luck, matter, preparation, opportunity; 3. Problems, opportunities, work (noun/adjective), clothes; 4. woman, money, room; 5. Language, limits, reality

Answer key for A Writer's Reference, 6th ed., by Diana Hacker (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2007).

Answers to Exercise B1-2 Identifying pronouns

a. He, every (pronoun/adjective); b. those, who; c. I, some (pronoun/adjective), that, I, myself; d. I, You, He; e. you, anything, anyone, me

1. their (pronoun/adjective), their (pronoun/adjective); 2. Nothing, you; 3. We, we, them; 4. those, who, themselves; 5. I, myself

Answers to Exercise B1-3 Identifying verbs

a. can pardon; b. are; c. does bring down; d. Keep, 'll [will] be insulted; e. Throw, will emerge

1. Do scald; 2. must win; 3. Love, do pull down; 4. 'd [would] have; 5. is, stabs

Answers to Exercise B1-4 Identifying adjectives and adverbs

a. Adjectives: General, wrong; adverb: generally; b. Adjectives: The (article), American, tolerant; adverb: wonderfully; c. Adjectives: an (article), uncultivated, an (article), uncultivated; adverbs: sometimes, never; d. Adjectives: wrong, right; adverbs: rather, strongly, weakly; e. Adjective: the (article); adverb: faster

1. Adjectives: a (article), public, a (article), private; 2. Adjectives: Their (pronoun/adjective), civil, interesting, their (pronoun/adjective), interesting, civil; adverbs: not, not; 3. Adjectives: a (article), good, the (article), its (pronoun/adjective); adverbs: pretty, not; 4. Adjectives: careful, the (article), our (pronoun/adjective); adverbs: not, too; 5. Adjective: untidy

Answers to Exercise B2-1 Identifying subjects

a. Complete subjects: Sticks and stones, words; simple subjects: Sticks, stones, words; b. Complete subject: all delays; simple subject: delays; c. Complete subject: (You); d. Complete subject: nothing except change; simple subject: nothing; e. Complete subject: Most of the disputes in the world; simple subject: Most

1. Complete subject: The structure of every sentence; simple subject: structure; 2. Complete subjects: (You), You; 3. Complete subject: every beetle; simple subject: beetle; 4. Complete subject: The burden of proof; simple subject: burden; 5. Complete subject: no signposts; simple subject: signposts

Answers to Exercise B2-2 Identifying subject complements and direct objects

a. Subject complement: cheap; b. Direct object: an injury; c. Direct object: his convent; d. Subject complement: the opium of the people; e. Subject complement: bitter

1. Direct object: the nastiest things about yourself; 2. Subject complement: the opportunities of foes; 3. Subject complement: the signature of civilization; 4. Direct object: the ideals of a nation; 5. Subject complement: too rich or too thin

Answer key for A Writer's Reference, 6th ed., by Diana Hacker (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2007).

Answers to Exercise B2-3 Identifying objects and complements

a. Direct object: us; object complement: wise; b. Direct object: money; object complement: their primary pursuit; c. Direct objects: us, us; object complements: happy, good; d. Indirect objects: me, you; direct objects: no questions, no lies; e. Indirect objects: me, you; direct objects: a good loser, a failure

1. Indirect object: the devil; direct object: his due; 2. Indirect object: every bird; direct object: its proper food; 3. Direct object: a bad film; object complement: worse; 4. Indirect object: me; direct object: nothing; 5. Direct object: us; object complement: surprisingly brave

Answers to Exercise B3-1 Identifying prepositional phrases

a. On their side (adverb phrase modifying had); b. of several air traffic controllers (adjective phrase modifying job), with ease (adverb phrase modifying could perform); c. To my embarrassment (adverb phrase modifying was born), in bed (adverb phrase modifying was born), with a lady (adverb phrase modifying was born); d. of a culture (adjective phrase modifying map); e. In France (adverb phrase modifying is)

1. to freedom (adjective phrase modifying road), by death (adverb phrase modifying has been stalked); 2. of sheep (adjective phrase modifying society), of wolves (adjective phrase modifying government); 3. with their heads (adverb phrase modifying feel), with their hearts (adverb phrase modifying think); 4. By a small sample (adverb phrase modifying may know); 5. by road or rail (adverb phrase modifying come), on infrastructure (adverb phrase modifying travel)

Answers to Exercise B3-2 Identifying subordinate clauses

a. who has outposts in your head (adjective clause modifying enemy); b. that doesn't bite (adjective clause modifying rattlesnake); c. If love is the answer (adverb clause modifying could rephrase); d. what they mean (noun clause used as direct object of say); e. unless I cannot resist it (adverb clause modifying avoid)

1. What history teaches us (noun clause used as subject of the sentence), that we have never learned anything from it (noun clause used as subject complement); 2. When the insects take over the world (adverb clause modifying hope), that they will remember our picnics with gratitude (noun clause used as direct object of hope); 3. who will tell her age (adjective clause modifying woman); 4. If triangles had a god (adverb clause modifying would have); 5. that you could have poured on a waffle (adjective clause modifying look)

Answer key for A Writer's Reference, 6th ed., by Diana Hacker (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2007).

Answers to Exercise B3-3 Identifying verbal phrases

a. Concealing a disease (gerund phrase used as subject), to cure it (infinitive phrase modifying way); b. being punctual (gerund phrase used as object of the preposition with), to appreciate it (infinitive phrase modifying is); c. to conceal him (infinitive phrase used as direct object), naming him Smith (gerund phrase used as object of the preposition by); d. Being weak (participial phrase modifying children), to beguile us with charm (infinitive phrase used as direct object); e. Wrestling with words (gerund phrase used as subject)

1. generally raised on city land (participial phrase modifying thing); 2. to remove a fly from your friend's forehead (infinitive phrase modifying Do use); 3. returning an item for a refund (participial phrase modifying shoplifter); 4. to describe others as they see themselves (infinitive phrase modifying ability); 5. hitting below it (gerund phrase used as object of the preposition without)

Answers to Exercise B4-1 Identifying sentence types

a. Complex; who sleep like a baby (adjective clause); b. Compound; c. Simple; d. Complex; If you don't go to other people's funerals (adverb clause); e. Compound-com- plex; what you are afraid of (noun clause)

1. Complex; that people don't change (noun clause); 2. Complex; who cannot remember the past (adjective clause); 3. Simple; 4. Compound; 5. Complex; when it adopts a creed (adverb clause)

Answer key for A Writer's Reference, 6th ed., by Diana Hacker (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2007).